Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)



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Vegetable Diseases Caused by Soilborne Pathogens STEVEN T. KOIKE is Plant Pathology Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Monterey County; KRISHNA V. SUBBARAO is Plant Pathology Specialist, Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis; R. MICHAEL DAVIS is Plant Pathology Specialist, Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis; and THOMAS A. TURINI is Plant Pathology Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Imperial County. Soilborne plant pathogens can significantly reduce yield and quality in vegetable crops. These pathogens are particularly challenging because...

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Wood Preservation and Wood Products Treatment Training Manual


Wood Preservation and Wood Products Treatment Training Manual EM 8403 • Revised August 2006 $3.50 G. Thomasson, J. Capizzi, F. Dost, J. Morrell, and D. Miller This publication was revised from a University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service publication by Gary Thomasson, Extension entomologist, Washington State University, and the following from Oregon State University: Joseph Capizzi, Extension entomologist emeritus (deceased); Frank N. Dost, Extension toxicology and agricultural chemical specialist emeritus; Jeffrey J. Morrell, professor of wood science; and Donald J....

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Agaricus bisporus in differrent languages.

Agaricus brunnescens



Slug Ð animal without an external shell. Large, with a saddle-like mantle shield that overs only the anterior part of the body, containing a vestigial shell as an oval plate. Mantle covered with black spots and mottles, back with black mottles and broken bands. Pneumostome or breathing pore (the opening to the lung) Ð in right posterior margin of mantle shield.;Species described in detail by Quick (1949, 1960), Wiktor (1973, 1983, 1996), Likharev and Wiktor (1980), Barker (1999), and many other authors. See Barker (1999) for terminologies.;Adults


Damage is simply holes rasped in plant tissues. While mollusc damage is characteristic to the expert, it resembles that caused by various insects with which it is often confused.;The damage caused to plants by L. maximus is not readily differentiated from that caused by other gastropods. Even the association of L. maximus with damaged plants is not definitive evidence that the species is solely or even partially responsible.


L. maximus will feed on living plants and is capable of inflicting significant damage to garden plants. Theobald (1895) listed L. maximus as one of the three most destructive species of slug in Britain (along with Deroceras reticulatum [as Limax agreste ], and Arion ater), without any justification. Taylor (1902-07) did not cite L. maximus as a pest, although he stated that it would eat young garden plants (but preferred fungi). White (1918) considered L. maximus a major pest of cultivated plants and mushrooms. For the most part the recognition of L. maximus as a pest of cultivated plants and cultivated mushrooms has diminished since the early 20 th Century, in large part because it has become widely appreciated that other slug species (e.g. Deroceras reticulatum, Arion hortensis) are more pestiferous and the predominant cause of damage in the garden. Due to its large size, L. maximus is often a conspicuous member of the garden fauna and thus often erroneously assumed to be responsible for any damage observed.;There have been no quantitative studies that determine the relative contributions of L. maximus to plant losses occurring in gardens due to slugs. Nonetheless, some authors continue to mention L. maximus as a serious garden pest (e.g. Pirone, 1978, Stange, 1978, Ebeling, 2002, Kozlowski, 2012a,b, Texas Invasive Species Institute, 2004).;The greatest potential for plant damage by L. maximus in the agricultural sector is in protected cropping, such as in glasshouses and greenhouses, or where crops occur near other dense vegetation, as the high moisture conditions and availability of daylight resting sites are highly favourable to high densities and activity. Nonetheless, there are no quantitative data available to implicate L. maximus as a significant pest in these cropping situations.;In arable fields L. maximus rarely occurs at densities sufficient to present risk to crops.;Numerous cultivated plants have been recorded as being damaged by L. maximus, but the literature is clearly not comprehensive. The significance of L. maximus as a pest in commercial mushroom beds has greatly diminished with modern mushroom cultivation practices.;In non-agricultural areas, L. maximus feeds on a variety of plants (e.g. on Coincya monensis, Hipkin and Facey, 2009) and may cause plant mortality, especially in the seedling stage. For the most part this herbivory by L. maximus goes unnoticed in these situations and there is very little published information on its ecosystem-level significance. However, recent experimental work has shown that L. maximus makes a significant contribution to herbivory on seedlings in higher elevation, subtropical to temperate rainforests in Hawaii (Joe, 2006, Joe and Daehler, 2008) and in boreal forests in North America (Noel, 2004, Holloway 2008, Humber, 2009, Moss and Hermanutz, 2009, 2010, Gosse et al., 2011) which may have implications for plant recruitment in both forest systems.;It is also recognized that L. maximus feeds extensively on fungi, especially fungal fruiting structures, in woodland and forest systems (Elliott, 1922, Fršmming, 1940, Keller and Snell, 2002, Halbwachs and BŠssler, 2015). However, the ecosystem-level significance of this mycophagy is unknown.