Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Ethiopia, August 2014 Using neem seed for managing thrips in onion Recognize the problem Thrips are very small insects, about the size of a flea and just about visible to the naked eye. Immature stages referred to as nymphs are either yellow or white. Older individuals are yellowish-brown and move quickly. They feed by damaging the surface of the leaves and sucking the sap that exudes from the leaves. They often gather along the leaf veins. Onion leaves damaged by thrips are silvery or have tiny brownish marks or spots. They may be...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Tanzania , September 2013 Thrips management in onion Recognize the problem Thrips (“ Vithiripi ” in Swahili) are very small, only 1.5 mm long, thin insect pests. They are light grey-greenish, but very difficult to see. They suck on onion leaves starting on leaf bases. Leaf surfaces become covered with silvery feeding leaf spots or patches. You can usually see these along the inner angles of the leaves. When damage is severe, these patches can occupy most of the leaf surface....
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Kenya , December 2012 Broad mite on Passion Fruit Recognize the problem Broad mites, or yellow tea mites, are too small (less than 0.2 mm) to be detected by naked eyes. An attack by broad mites can only be detected by the symptoms of damage. They may damage the young stems of terminal leaves or shoots. The damaged tender leaves get twisted, fail to grow longer and die in the long run. Their feeding leads to death of tissues, discolouration (bronzing), deformation and swelling. Severely...
1Group number for resistance management (see p. 7-6, Best Practices Guide for Grapes ) 2Re-entry interval on the label (see p. 7-2). Re-entry interval s for grapes usually vary widely by activity. See label for details where a range of re -entry tim es are shown. An asterisk(*) indicates that no re -entry is shown on the label, but the WorkSafe BC re -entry interval may apply and is shown. 3Pre -harvest interval (see p. 7-13). 1 + Pest Control Products Recommended for Use on Grapes in British Columbia Table 1. INSECTICIDES and MITICIDES...
1 Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agric\flt\fral Drainage PMR 1008 October 2011 Introduction Subsurface agricultural drainage can allow large gains in agricultural producti\fity in the midwestern \bnited States. There is, howe\fer, concern about pollutants mo\fing through these systems. One specific water quality concern is nitrate, a form of nitrogen that mo\fes readily through the soil and often can be present in high amounts in clear drainage waters. The water quality of our local streams, ri\fers, and lakes can be negati\fely impacted by nitrate in tile drainage. Moreo\fer...
Conference PurposeThe Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) invites participation at a conference intended to critically analyze Land and Water Management (LWM), Technologies, Innovations and Management Practices (TIMPs) and strategies promoting Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA). This will be the 29 th SSSEA Conference following the 28 th meeting held in Morogoro, Tanzania from 23 rd to 27 th November, 2015. A particular focus of this conference deals with the contribution of LWM in the Agricultural Production Value Chains (APVCs), addressing threats and opportunities associated...
KENYA AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK RESEARCH ORGANIZATION HEADQUARTERS Kaptagat Road, Loresho P.O. BOX 57811 - 00200 NAIROBI Telephone: 4183301 -20/0722 -206986/88 TENDER NO: KALRO/ 014 /TRI /2018 -2019 FOR SUPPLY OF BIODEGRADABLE PAPER POT SLEEVES DATE: AprilPage 2 of 44 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION ……………………………. 3 SECTION I INVITATION TO TENDER…………………… 4 SECTION II INSTRUCTIONS TO TENDERERS…………. 7 Appendix to I nstructions to...
The Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus , a New Invasive Pest in Southern California Richard Stouthamer Department of Entomology University of California, RiversidePSHB is an ambrosia beetle • Weevils that are related to bark beetles • Shot hole borers are a group of ambrosia beetles that make tiny entry holes in trees • Ambrosia refers to a symbiotic fungus • Fungus is carried along by female in special organs in her mouth parts • Fungus is used to infest the host plant and both adult beetles ...
APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR RURAL AREAS www.attra.ncat.org ATTRA is the national sustainable agriculture information center operated by the National Center for Appropriate Technology under a grant from the Rural Business-Cooperative Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These organizations do not recommend or endorse products, companies, or individuals. ATTRA is located in the Ozark Mountains at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville (P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702). ATTRA staff members prefer to receive requests for information about sustainable agriculture via the...
June 2017 az1739 Compost Tea 101: What Every Organic Gardener Should Know Valerisa Joe, Channah Rock and Jean McLain Introduction Growers of organic produce in the Southwestern United States face many challenges, including variation in water and temperature, and exposure to insects and disease. As a result, smallholder organic farmers are increasingly relying on soil additives such as compost tea that improve product quality, use less water, deter pests, and reduce reliance on chemical additives (Diver, 2002). But what exactly is compost tea? Do the benefits of using compost tea...
Plant Guide Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center AMUR MAPLE Acer ginnala Maxim. Plant Symbol = ACGI Contributed By: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center Alternative Name Siberian maple Uses Ethnobotanic: The young leaves were used as a tea substitute (Kunkel 1984). Black, blue, and brown dyes were obtained and dried from the leaves. Landscaping...
Plant Fact Sheet Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center COMMON YARROW Achillea millefollium L. Plant Symbol = ACMI2 Contributed by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center Caution: This plant may become invasive. Alternate Names Milfoil Uses Ethnobotanic: Several tribes of the Plains region of the United States including the Pawnee and Chippewa tribes used common yarrow. The Pawnee used the stalk in a treatment for pain relief. The Chippewa used the leaves in a steam inhalant for headaches. They also chewed...
Plant Guide Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center COMMMON YARROW Achillea millefolium L. Plant Symbol = ACMI2 Contributed by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center Caution: This plant may become invasive. Alternate Names Milfoil Uses Ethnobotanic: Several tribes of the Plains region of the United States including the Pawnee and Chippewa tribes used common yarrow. The Pawnee used the stalk in a treatment for pain relief. The Chippewa used the leaves in a steam inhalant for headaches. They also chewed the...
Plant Fact Sheet Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center WESTERN YARROW Achillea millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC. Plant Symbol = ACMIO Contributed by: USDA NRCS Bridger Plant Materials Center Alternate Name Woolly yarrow Uses Conservation: It is an early successional species that readily establishes on disturbed sites. Western yarrow is recommended for adding species diversity in native seed mixtures for rehabilitation of disturbed sites such as rangelands, minelands, roadsides, park and restoration areas,...
Plant Guide Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center WESTERN YARROW Achillea millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC. Plant Symbol = ACMIO Contributed by: USDA NRCS Bridger (MT) Plant Materials Center Alternate Names Woolly yarrow; Achillea millefolium L. ssp. occidentalis (DC.) Hyl, Achillea millefolium L. var. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper; Achillea millefolium L. ssp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper Uses Conservation: Western yarrow is an early successional species that readily establishes on disturbed sites. It is...
Wildflowers of North Dakota and their Medicinal Uses Part II “Helping People Help the Land” Blanketflower Gaillardia aristata Blanketflower commonly named gaillardia blooms from June through August. The true native plants have yellow petals. Native Americans used plant roots to make an eyewash, and a poultice was applied to skin disorders. The flower heads were used to waterproof rawhide bags. Wood lily Lilium philadelphicum Wood lily blooms from May through June in wet meadows. Native Americans cooked the bulbs in soups. Flowers were ground and...
1 FARMER´S COMPOST HANDBOOK Experiences in Latin America 2 FARMER´S COMPOST HANDBOOK Experiences in Latin America Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean Santiago, 2015 Authors Pilar Román María M. Martínez Alberto Pantoja The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country...
Hibiscus sabdariffa Malvaceae L. Detail of flowers and leaves. (Morton J.) Harvested calyses. (Armstrong W.P.) LOCAL NAMES English (white sorrel,rozelle,roselle,red sorrel,jamaica); Malay (asam susur); Thai (kachieb priew) BOTANIC DESCRIPTION Hibiscus sabdariffa is an erect, mostly branched, annual shrub. Stem reddish in colour and up to 3.5 m tall, with a deep penetrating taproot. Leaves variously colored, dark green to red; leaves alternate, glabrous, long-petiolate, palmately divided into 3-7 lobes, with serrate margins. Flowers large, short-peduncled, red to yellow with dark...
Prof Steven R Belmain Agriculture, Health and Environment Department Natural Resources Institute Faculty of Engineering and Science University of Greenwich Using pesticidal plants in crop protection Factors affecting plant material usage Effectiveness Cost Availability Toxicity Ease of use Acceptability Versatility Cost was considered most important factor by farmers in Ghana low cost high cost Pesticidal plants usually do not kill insects quickly. Exposed insects may take a few days to die. PPs can be toxic but also act through repellency, anti-...
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Thea stricta jassamica
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Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).
Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.
Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
P. chinensis is a perennial herb. Rhizomes stout. Stems erect, 70-100 cm tall, ligneous at base, much branched, striate, glabrous or retrorsely hispid. Petiole 1-2 cm, usually auriculate at base, upper leaves subsessile;leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 4-16 × 1.5-8 cm, both surfaces glabrous or hispid, abaxially sometimes pubescent along veins, base truncate or broadly cordate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate;ocrea tubular, 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, glabrous, much veined, apex oblique, not ciliate. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, capitate, 3-5 mm, usually several capitula aggregated and panicle-like;peduncle densely glandular hairy;bracts broadly ovate, each 1-3-flowered. Perianth white or pinkish, 5-parted;tepals ovate, accrescent in fruit, becoming blue-black, fleshy. Stamens 8, included. Styles 3, connate to below middle. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, opaque, broadly ovoid, trigonous, 3-4 mm (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).
P. chinensis is closely related to other important invasive Persicaria species such as P. orientalis, P. capitata, and P. perfoliata, all species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). P. chinensis is a fast-growing herb that forms dense mats and tolerates diverse environmental conditions (Galloway and Lepper, 2010). It spreads by seed and by resprouting from broken fragments. Its high growth rates and spread potential provides this species the ability to smother other plants affecting plant community structure and composition (USDA-APHIS, 2012). Biosecurity New Zealand described the species in a risk assessment as “a highly invasive plant that quickly smothers available surfaces including other plants and trees,” and PIER (2014) lists it as invasive in several territories, including Hawaii.
P. chinensis is a common weed requiring control in tea plantations where it covers tea bushes and blocks drainage systems (Tjitrosemito and Jaya, 1990).