P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014 Prevention of Spotted Pod Borer on beans Recognize the problem The spotted pod borer feeds on several beans and peas apart from chickpeas. Larvae web together the bean leaves, flowers, buds and new shoots, then feed inside on these plant parts, protected by the webbing. This causes new shoots and buds to appear dry. The larvae also make holes in the pods and feed on the seeds and pods, preventing the pods from becoming fully developed. This damage to the pods and seeds, and the defoliation (leaf drop)...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Chickpea Wilt Recognize the problem Chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the major yield limiting factors in chickpea and is also known as “ Mar disease ” in Marathi. The disease causes 10–90% yield losses annually in chickpea. When the disease occurs at seedling stage, seedlings collapse and lie flat on the soil surface. In adult plants, the characteristic symptom is a brown to black discoloration of the xylem...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Pulse Beetle Recognize the problem Pulse beetles are serious pests of stored pulses like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, cowpea and chickpea. The white coloured eggs hatch after 4 to 5 days. The grub makes a hole inside the grain which causes heavy damage. This reduces the quality as well as market prices. Adults are 4.5 mm long and heart shaped. Background This is a primary pest of stored pulses. Infestation starts in the field and continues in the store. The grubs...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Chickpea Pod Borer Recognize the problem Female moths of the pod borer each lay about 300-350 eggs on the tender leaves and flower bracts of the plant. The eggs are creamy white in colour. The incubation period is 4-5 days and the larval period is 22-27 days. Newly hatched larvae feed on green leaves and later feed on flower buds and pods. Fully grown larvae feed on the pods by making small circular holes. Half of the larvae body always remains outside the pods. A single...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Pakistan , December 2012 Gram Pod Borer Recognize the problem The fresh eggs are yellowish, shiny and lay singly on all parts of plant. The larva is long, hairy and changes different colour. The larvae have 3 streaks on their back. At the beginning the young grubs feed on green leaves, but then feed on flower buds and pods. The adult is light pale brownish yellow stout moth with grey and brown wings. The young feeds on leaves and from December to February enter into the pods by making...
Economic threshold ready reckoners Quick reference tables for key insect pests Economic thresholds are a key decision tool for growers and agronomists managing insect pests in their crops. Dynamic economic thresholds enable individual costs of control and grain prices to be included in the calculations to ensure the decision to treat or not to treat the pest infestation is as accurate as possible. These ready reckoners have been calculated for a range of pest densities, costs of control and grain prices. Where two ready reckoners are provided for a ...
Sorghum insect pest management Northern grains region Compiled by Melina Miles, March 2013 This publication has been compiled by Melina Miles of Crop and Food Science, Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and draws on previous publications and original research by Bernie Franzmann, Adam Hardy, Dave Murray, and Melina Miles. DAFF and GRDC funding for the IPM Workshops project (DAQ00179) has assisted the prepa ration of this publication. Front cover photo by Ian Partridge, DAFF Queensland. All other ...
Maize insect pest management Northern grains region Compiled by Kate Charleston, March 2013 This publication has been compiled by Kate Charleston of Crop and Food Science, Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and draws on previous publications and original research by Dave Murray and other departmental Entomologists. DAFF and GRDC funding for the IPM Workshops project (DAQ00179) has assisted the preparation of this public ation. Unless otherwise acknowledged, photographs are provided by DAFF Queensland...
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P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.