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Prevention of spotted pod borer on beans

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014 Prevention of Spotted Pod Borer on beans Recognize the problem The spotted pod borer feeds on several beans and peas apart from chickpeas. Larvae web together the bean leaves, flowers, buds and new shoots, then feed inside on these plant parts, protected by the webbing. This causes new shoots and buds to appear dry. The larvae also make holes in the pods and feed on the seeds and pods, preventing the pods from becoming fully developed. This damage to the pods and seeds, and the defoliation (leaf drop)...

Published at: plantwise.org

Chickpea wilt

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Chickpea Wilt Recognize the problem Chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the major yield limiting factors in chickpea and is also known as “ Mar disease ” in Marathi. The disease causes 10–90% yield losses annually in chickpea. When the disease occurs at seedling stage, seedlings collapse and lie flat on the soil surface. In adult plants, the characteristic symptom is a brown to black discoloration of the xylem...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pulse beetle

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Pulse Beetle Recognize the problem Pulse beetles are serious pests of stored pulses like pigeon pea, green gram, black gram, cowpea and chickpea. The white coloured eggs hatch after 4 to 5 days. The grub makes a hole inside the grain which causes heavy damage. This reduces the quality as well as market prices. Adults are 4.5 mm long and heart shaped. Background This is a primary pest of stored pulses. Infestation starts in the field and continues in the store. The grubs...

Published at: plantwise.org

Chickpea pod borer

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Chickpea Pod Borer Recognize the problem Female moths of the pod borer each lay about 300-350 eggs on the tender leaves and flower bracts of the plant. The eggs are creamy white in colour. The incubation period is 4-5 days and the larval period is 22-27 days. Newly hatched larvae feed on green leaves and later feed on flower buds and pods. Fully grown larvae feed on the pods by making small circular holes. Half of the larvae body always remains outside the pods. A single...

Published at: plantwise.org

Gram pod borer

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Pakistan , December 2012 Gram Pod Borer Recognize the problem The fresh eggs are yellowish, shiny and lay singly on all parts of plant. The larva is long, hairy and changes different colour. The larvae have 3 streaks on their back. At the beginning the young grubs feed on green leaves, but then feed on flower buds and pods. The adult is light pale brownish yellow stout moth with grey and brown wings. The young feeds on leaves and from December to February enter into the pods by making...

Published at: plantwise.org

Phoma blight disease of chickpea

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Viral diseases in chickpea

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Stemphylium blight disease of chickpea

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Sclerotina stem rot disase of chickpea

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Sitona weevil of chickpea

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Seeds and seed preparation in chickpea

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Bruchids in chickpea

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Collectotricum blight disease chickpea

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Bortrytis mold disease of chickpea

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Alternaria blight disease of chickpea

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Rust disease of chickpea

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Powdery mildew disease of chickpea

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IPM ready reckoner June2013

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                              Economic threshold ready reckoners  Quick reference tables for key insect pests    Economic thresholds are a key decision tool for growers and agronomists managing insect pests in their crops.  Dynamic economic thresholds enable individual costs of control and grain prices to be included in the calculations  to ensure the decision to treat or not to treat the pest infestation is as accurate  as possible.   These ready reckoners have been calculated for a range of pest densities, costs of control and grain prices. Where  two ready reckoners are provided for a ...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

Sorghum IPMWorkshops north March2013

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                Sorghum insect pest management  Northern  grains region   Compiled  by  Melina  Miles,  March  2013  This publication has  been compiled  by Melina  Miles of Crop  and Food  Science,  Queensland  Department  of Agriculture, Fisheries  and  Forestry,  and draws  on previous publications and  original research  by Bernie  Franzmann,  Adam Hardy,  Dave Murray,  and Melina  Miles.  DAFF  and GRDC  funding for the  IPM  Workshops project  (DAQ00179) has assisted  the prepa ration  of this  publication.   Front  cover  photo  by  Ian  Partridge,  DAFF Queensland.  All other  ...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

Maize IPM Workshops north March2013

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                Maize insect pest management   Northern grains region   Compiled  by  Kate  Charleston,  March  2013  This publication has  been compiled  by Kate  Charleston  of  Crop  and Food  Science,  Queensland  Department  of Agriculture,  Fisheries and  Forestry,  and draws  on previous publications and  original research  by Dave  Murray  and other  departmental  Entomologists.  DAFF and GRDC  funding  for the  IPM  Workshops  project (DAQ00179)  has assisted  the preparation of  this public ation.   Unless otherwise  acknowledged, photographs are  provided by DAFF  Queensland...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

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Names

Cicer arietinum in differrent languages.

Chana
Chanaa
Masri chana
Chickpea
Bengal gram
Pois chiche
Cafe francais
Gravancos
Sigro
Hanaz
Djelbane
Leblebija
Kikärt
Cizrna beraní
Nohut
چنا
ถั่วหัวช้าง
Nehe
ਛੋਲੇ
Čičerika
Нут культурны
Cìciru
Qiqra
نخۊت
Kikherne
శనగలు
Kjúklingabaun
Леблебија
Pois chiche
Kikert
Нахут
نخود
Нұт
병아리콩
Ikiker
Mnjegere-kubwa
Kikkererwt
Ffacbys
НухутӀ хъюрув
Csicseriborsó
Txitxirio
Бәрән ногыты
Kacang kuda
ܚܪܛܘܡܢܐ
Đậu gà
Нахӯд
Нут бараний
نۆک
Piseánach
Ciecierzyca pospolita
Käicher
Kikært
Slani grah
Harilik kikerhernes
கொண்டைக் கடலை
ছোলা
Нут
Garavanzo
Qoyunnoxudu
鹰嘴豆
ଚଣା
Chickpea
Garbanzo
ሽምብራ
Cicero
נאהיט
Năut
Garbansos
三角豆
Cicer arietinum
Artes culinarias/Ingredientes/Garbanzo
ಕಡಲೆ
Kichererbse
نوخود
Garbanso
Garvane
ચણા
Slanutak
കടല
Aunazirņi
חמצה
حمص شائع
Shunburo
Nok
রন্ধনপ্রণালী:ছোলা
ヒヨコマメ
Sėjamasis avinžirnis
Cigró
Ρεβιθιά
ސަނާ މުގު
Grão-de-bico
चणकः
Cookbook:Chickpea
चना
Kacang arab
Céser
කඩල
Kichererbse

Q&A

Description

P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.

Hosts

P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).

Source: cabi.org