Oranges (Citrus sinensis)

Description

 

Resources

30 resources available. Click on the image to preview, click on the publisher link to download.

Herbicides against weeds in maize

Published at: plantwise.org

Prevent bean rust using fungicides

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, September 2016 Prevent bean rust using fungicides Recognize the problem Bean rust is a fungal disease of beans and other legumes. It can cause yield losses up to 30%. It affects vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages of the bean plant. The disease symptoms are yellow to yellowish-brown spots scattered over leaves. The symptoms are a little similar to those of anthracnose of beans, but usually smaller and not so orange-brownish. Background The disease thrives in damp conditions and temperatures of 20-25°C. Chlorothalonil is a...

Published at: plantwise.org

Ladybirds to control aphids in cotton

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015 Ladybirds to control aphids in cotton Recognize the problem Cotton (Butonje in Tonga) is often attacked by aphids (njina in Tonga, inda in Nyanja). The aphids are tiny greenish or blackish, soft insects that can have wing or no wings. They are so small so that you can only just see them. They often sit in groups on the underside of cotton leaves (= aphid colonies). There they suck sap out of the leaves. Leaves curl and later become yellow. Background When farmers see aphids, they start spraying, often every two weeks...

Published at: plantwise.org

Rice false smut

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Cambodia, November 2014 (Revised November 2016) Rice False Smut Recognize the problem Outbreaks of false smut generally occur during periods of high humidity. Normally only a few grains in a panicle are affected and the attack usually takes place when the grains are mature. The fungus transforms individual rice grains into large spherical balls containing spores. These spore balls are initially orange, then change to yellowish-green and turn greenish-black when mature. In most cases, not all spikelets of a panicle are affected, but...

Published at: plantwise.org

Herbicides against weeds in soybeans

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, December 2014 Herbicides against weeds in soybeans Recognize the problem Weeds compete with soybean for light, space, water and nutrients. Soybean plants are quickly overgrown. If weeds are not controlled on time, soybean yield will be very low. Background Most weeds can be controlled mechanically by pulling out, harrowing, or tillage. Some serious weeds can be chemically controlled. Be careful, some chemicals can only be sprayed before soybean germinates. Glyphosate kills any plant, also soybean. Thus, spray before sowing, or...

Published at: plantwise.org

Prevention of false smut on rice

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014 Prevention of False Smut on Rice Recognize the problem False smut causes yellowish to orange small balls to develop on the grains which later turn black. The incidence of false smut is increasing more and more among rice growers, especially among small seed productive farmers. This is due to changing weather conditions and continuous rice cropping. Background False smut is a soil, seed and air borne fungal disease. It causes reduced rice quality and means farmers get a low market price. The pathogen that...

Published at: plantwise.org

Repelling fruit flies by weaver ants in oranges

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Tanzania, October 2014 Repelling fruit flies by weaver ants in oranges Recognize the problem Fruit flies lay eggs in mature orange fruits causing black dots and yellowing of fruits. The flies are a bit smaller than house flies and much more colourful. They have orange silvery patterns around the abdomen, and transparent wings with dark patterns. The larvae hatch from eggs, feed inside fruits, and destroy them. Fruits rot and fall off early. Background Fruit flies are flying insects that search for mature fruits of different types....

Published at: plantwise.org

Management of leaf miner fly

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Published at: plantwise.org

Plant nutrient deficiencies

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Trinidad and Tobago , November 2011 Plant nutrient deficiencies Recognize the problem Like humans, plants need food for survival. Nutrients are the food that plants need to grow and mature. Nutrients are added to the soil or to the leaves of plants as fertiliser. Young leaves turn light green and the lower leaves are yellow and shrivelled. Signs of deficiencies can be seen on leaves, fruits and stems. Nutrient deficiencies usually appear in the middle of the leaf, away from the leaf veins....

Published at: plantwise.org

Crop Protection

Published at: agritech.tnau.ac.in

Bacterial leaf streak (Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzicola)

Published at: agritech.tnau.ac.in

Cricket

Published at: agritech.tnau.ac.in

Exotic pest alert: rice water weevil

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Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Exotic pest alert: rice blast

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Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Exotic pest alert: South African citrus thrips

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Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Exotic pest alert: African citrus psyllid

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Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Common pests and diseases on mango: Ghana

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Published at: plantwise.org

Common insect pests on tomato: Ghana

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Published at: plantwise.org

Common pests and diseases of coffee

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Published at: plantwise.org

Common pests and diseases of maize

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Published at: plantwise.org

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Names

Citrus sinensis in differrent languages.

Citrus aurantium sinensis
Citrus chinensis
Navel orange
Citrus aurantium L. (var.) sinensis L. (1753).
Orange
Sweet orange
Valencia orange
Oranger
Oranger doux
Birtukan
Apfelsine
Jeruk manis
Arancio
Laranja doce
Jeruk manis
Chilina
Apelsinipuu
Oren
Apel'siinu
Naranjacuahuitl
Taronger
Апельсин
Liú-teng
Portocal
Pomarańcza chińska
オレンジ
Apelsin
လိမ္မော်သီး
Афлесун
درختان مرکبات
Sweet oranges
Lemoen
Πορτοκαλιά
ಕಿತ್ತಳೆ
Malum Sinense
Pamarantschn
Appelsin
Appelsiinipuu
Ọsàn
Laranjondo
Laranxeira
Naranča
Әфлисун
橙樹
Leemuu
Oráiste
Portokalero
Նարնջենի
Sinaasappel
Портокал
برتقال
Portakal
Citrus sinensis
బత్తాయి
ფორთოხალი
Pomerančovník čínský
Portokalli
Citrus × sinensis
सन्त्रासि
মাল্টা
Oranĝarbo
پورتاغال
Seenappel
Moli
Апельсін
당귤나무
Apelsīnkoks
Purtugàl
Portağal
Mchungwa
Апатырқал
Slatka naranča
Апэльсін
برتقان
Oranger
Narancs
Apelsina
Dalandan
Sweet oranges

Q&A

Citrus sinensis
Description

Salmo trutta has a fusiform body with a small pointed head, large mouth, extending mostly after the eye (Rochard and Elie, 1994). S. trutta or brown trout get their name from the brown or golden brown hue on their bodies. Body is grey-blue coloured with numerous spots, also below the lateral line (Rochard and Elie, 1994). Blackish coloured on upper part of body, usually orange on sides, surrounded by pale halos. Adipose fin is with red margin (FishBase, 2004). Sea-run S. trutta have a more silvery coloration and the spotting is less visible (Nova Scotia, 2004). It has 3-4 dorsal spines, 10-15 dorsal soft rays, 3-4 anal spines and 9-14 anal soft rays (FishBase, 2004). Caudal fin has 18-19 rays (Spillman, 1961). Caudal peduncle is thick and rounded (Rochard and Elie, 1994). It has a few scales (Rochard and Elie, 1994).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

S. trifasciata is a succulent plant with stout creeping rhizomes. Leaves 1 or 2 together, linear-oblanceolate, stiffly erect, 30-100 ? 3 cm, the apex tapering to a stiff green point;the blades are transversely banded with contrasting green and whitish zones;margins are green. The inflorescence is pedunculate, 30-75 cm long. Flowers are solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3, pedicels up to 5 mm long;perianth tube 1 cm long or less, the linear lobes up to 2 cm long, white or greenish white. Fruits are subglobose to oblong-ellipsoid, 7-9 ? 5-8 mm, bright orange (Acevedo-Rodr’guez and Strong, 2005).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

P. aurantiaca is a red-flowering, perennial herb with usually 2-3 (up to 6) bright-green, soft rosette leaves which are covered with numerous, pale simple eglandular hairs on both the upper and lower leaf surface and the leaf margin. Rosette leaves are 8-15 cm (up to 22 cm) long and 1-4 cm wide with sparse stellate hairs restricted to the lower leaf surface. Flowering stems are 20-40 cm (up to 65 cm) long with sparse stellate, numerous, dark simple eglandular hairs (1-6 mm long) and fewer, shorter, dark glandular hairs above, with 1-4 leaves similar to those of the rosette. The flowering stem produces 2-12 (-25) flower heads with orange-red florets. The fruit is an achene up to 3 mm long and 1 mm wide. The pappus is brown and brittle.

Hosts

P. aurantiaca is not a weed of crops but is a serious weed of natural and managed pastures, also in forest clearings and margins.

Biological Control
Since chemical and mechanical control are ineffective and/or not economical a programme to develop biological control was initiated in 1992 (Syrett and Smith, 1998). P. aurantiaca is not attacked to any noticeable degree by specialized phytophagous insects in New Zealand (Syrett and Smith, 1998), and may therefore have a competitive advantage over native rangeland species. The plume moth, Oxyptilus pilosellae, the cynipid, Aulacidea subterminalis, the syrphid, Cheilosia urbana and Cheilosia psilophthalma are native to Europe and feed on different parts of P. aurantiaca and after testing were approved for release in New Zealand (Syrett et al., 1999, Grosskopf et al., 2002, Klšppel et al., 2003).;Since P. aurantiaca is a noxious weed in North America a programme was also initiated. Major differences between the programmes in New Zealand and North America include the presence of native Hieracium and Pilosella species. Potential biological control agents are presently being tested at CABI Switzerland for use in North America. However after assessment, the four agents released in New Zealand were dismissed due to difficulties in rearing some agents, feeding on non-target species and limited damage caused by the agent. However, Aulacidea pilosellae causes small galls on the midrib of leaves, stolons and flower stalks of several target species in the genus Pilosella and appears to have a restricted host range. The wasp is being studied in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) and Montana State University (MSU).;A joint petition (Littlefield et al., 2009) for field release of the gall wasp Aulacidea subterminalis in the USA and Canada was submitted and approved in 2010. Since summer 2011, several releases have taken place in British Columbia, Canada and Montana, USA on P. aurantiaca and H.flagellare, and sites are being monitored. So far, establishment has only been confirmed on H. flagellare.;A joint petition for the field release of the root-feeding hoverfly Cheilosia urbana in North America was submitted to the United States Department of Agriculture Ð Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) Technical Advisory Group (TAG) and the Canadian Biological Control Review Committee in December 2014. The agent was approved for release in Canada by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in April 2016 and recommended for release by TAG for the USA in May 2016. Surveys in Switzerland to collect the hoverfly in view of future releases in North America started in 2016.;Screening of the rust Puccinia hieracii var. piloselloidarum started in 2012 at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), using samples field collected from various Pilosella species in Europe by CABI. Due to the very limited success with the inoculations in the laboratory, work with the rust was discontinued.

Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

D. regia is a tall tree reaching a height of more than 15 m and a girth of 2 m under favourable conditions. The bole is short. The trunk is buttressed and the stem form above the buttress is generally normal in taper (Webb et al., 1984). The trees are almost evergreen, with broad-spreading, open, umbrella-shaped crowns (Randhawa, 1965). It is deciduous in localities which experience long pronounced dry seasons (Streets, 1962;Yusuf and Sheikh, 1986). The bark is grey or brown, smooth or slightly rough, and exfoliating (Gamble, 1902;Sheikh, 1993).The compound leaves of D. regia are bipinnate and feathery, up to 60 cm long, pinnae 11-18 pairs, petiole stout. The leaflets are in 20-30 pairs on each pinna, oblong, 7.5-10 mm long, 3.4-5 mm wide (Gamble, 1902;Randhawa, 1965). At the base of the leaf, two stipules occur which have long, narrow comb-like teeth (Luna, 1996). The inflorescence of D. regia is a lax terminal or axillary raceme. The flowers appear in corymbs along or at the end of branches and are large, 10 cm across and bright red. They vary considerably in intensity of colouring, ranging from orange-vermillion to deep scarlet. Most of the common names for D. regia are derived from the colour of its flowers. The pods are 5 cm broad and 30-60 cm long, ending in a beak when mature (Luna, 1996). They are green and flaccid when young and are compressed, firm and rather thick when mature. Seeds are large, yellowish, oblong, arranged at right angles to the length of pod and transversely mottled (Parker, 1956;Hutchinson, 1964;Ali, 1973). The seeds have a hard, bony testa.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

C. maenas is a shore crab that can range in size from a carapace width of a 1-2 cm to 9-10 cm (Grosholz and Ruiz, 1996) and is wider than it is long (Klassen and Locke, 2007). Its colour is highly variable and therefore not a good characteristic for identification as it can be brown to green, to orange and even red in color. The easiest clue that you possibly have collected C. maenas is that it has 5 antero-lateral teeth or spines on each side of the crab and three rounded lobes between the eyes.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

O. aureus is silvery with a caudal fin lacking regular dark vertical stripes, but a broad pink to bright red distal margin (Trewavas, 1965;1983;Teugels and Thys van den Audenaerde, 2003). Colouration of breeding females is more orange at the edges of dorsal and caudal fins, whereas breeding males exhibit an intense vermillion edge to their dorsal fin, bright metallic blue on their head, and a more intense pink on the caudal fin (Trewavas, 1965;1983). O. aureus has 18-26 gill rakers, 3 anal spines and (14-)16(-17) dorsal spines. Females are significantly smaller than males, which have a maximum length of 508 mm.

Biological Control
The predatory fish Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops and Sciaenops ocellatus have been effectively employed to reduce wild spawning among tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) in aquaculture grow-out ponds. Other known predators and possible controls include: snakehead (Channa striata), tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides), Nile perch (Lates niloticus), banded jewelfish Hemichromis fasciatus and jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) (Milstein et al., 2000). A management program to increase the abundance of potential predators of large tilapias in Lake Nicaragua, such as alligators, gars and elasmobranchs, has been suggested (McCrary et al., 2007).

Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

T. capensis is a clambering or semi-erect shrub, 3-4 m in length. Stems cylindrical, lenticellate, puberulous;cross section of the mature stem with peripheral phloem not forming a cross. Leaves opposite, imparipinnate, 7-11-foliolate, without tendrils;leaflets 1.5-4.2 ? 1-3 cm, elliptical to sub-rounded, membranaceous, sessile, the apex rounded, the base rounded or abruptly cuneate, the margins serrate;upper surface dull, pale, with slightly prominent venation;lower surface light green, dull, punctate, with slightly prominent venation, forming a conspicuous network, with tufts of hairs in the axils;petioles 1.5-2.5 cm long;pseudo-stipules absent. Flowers numerous in axillary racemes;pedicel 6-10 mm long. Calyx green, 5-7 mm long, 5-dentate, ciliate, puberulent;corolla orange or reddish orange, tubular, curved, 3.5-5 cm long, with 5 oblong, unequal lobes, the 2 upper lobes smaller than the 3 lower;stamens 4, of equal length;ovary superior, oblong, glabrous. Capsule linear, 5-11 cm long and 7-8 mm wide;seeds in 2 rows, slender, 2-winged, the wings hyaline-membranaceous (Acevedo-Rodr’guez, 2005).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

Spermogonia epiphyllous (on upper surface of leaves), in lenticular cavities, subcuticular in origin, visible on hypertrophied epidermal cells, 115 x 70 µm. Aecia epiphyllous, intraepidermal, usually in circles surrounding spermogonia, yellowish-orange, without paraphyses or peridia;aeciospores ellipsoidal or obovate, 23-30 x 17-21 µm, walls hyaline, thin, 1-2 µm thick, prominently and sparsely echinulate, most numerous on upper part of spore, pores not seen. Uredinia hypophyllous (on lower side of leaves), suprastomatal, without papraphyses, yellowish;urediniospores similar to aeciospores, but smaller. Telia hypophyllus, suprastomatal, scattered or aggregated, yellowish, compact;teliospores clavate, 50-65 x 15-17 µm, wall thin, hyaline, 1.0-1.5 µm thick, unthickened above, pedicel short;germination without dormancy. See Hernandez and Hennen (2003), and Salazar et al. (2007) for more detailed descriptions.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

D. seguine is a terrestrial herbaceous plant that grows in tropical environments. The basal stems are often thick and root at the nodes. Stems can grow to 1.5 m tall. Stems may trail along the ground long distances. Leaves and stems contain a white sap. Leaves have elongated, grooved, petioles (10-35 cm long), which are usually medium green, but may be spotted. The petioles are covered in a sheath to 2/3 or more of its length. Leaves cluster in a tight whorl at the apex of the stem. Leaves are simple, ovate-lanceolate and acuminate at the apex, acute to obtuse at the base, 17-38 cm long and 10-20 cm wide. Leaves are somewhat leathery and are often variegated with pale green or white, especially along the midribs. Midribs are slightly off-center. There are 13-19 primary lateral veins on each side. Flowers are a spathe and spadix with 1-4 inflorescences per axil. The pale green spathe is usually shorter than the leaves, 11-24 cm long, acuminate at the apex, gradually constricted above the tube (spathe tube 7-10 cm long). The spadix is slightly shorter than the spathe (10-19 cm long) and is divided into pistillate and staminate portions with the pistillate flowers basal. Flowers are naked and unisexual. Fruits mature to bright red or orange and are 2- or 3- lobed, each fruit containing 1 to 3 seeds (Croat, 2004).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

Crocosmia ? crocosmiiflora is an herb 25-50 (-100) cm tall, with corms 2-3 cm in diameter and slender scaly stolons. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 30-50 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide. Spikes slightly flexuous, arching horizontally, with several branches, bracts 6-10 mm long;tepals orange, lanceolate, 15-25 mm long, 6-9 mm wide, sub-equal, spreading, the perianth tube slightly curved, 10-15 mm long;filaments 15-22 mm long;anthers 6-8 mm long. Capsules up to 7 mm long, ca. 9 mm wide. Seeds brown, wrinkled, usually not viable (Wagner et al., 1999).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis
Description

G. robosta is an erect, single-stemmed tree typically reaching 20-30 m tall and 80 cm in stem diameter. The crown is conical and symmetrical with major branches spaced at intervals of about 1 m and projecting upwards at an angle of 45¡. Bark on the trunk is dark grey and furrowed into a lace-like pattern. G. robusta is described and illustrated by McGillivray and Makinson (1993), Boland et al. (1984), and Harwood (1997). Proteoid roots (sections of the secondary roots which develop as dense cylindrical clusters of rootlets) develop in conditions of low phosphorus availability, and are thought to increase the plant's ability to take up nutrients (Skene et al., 1996). Young branchlets are angular and ridged, subsericeous to tomentose but glabrous on older growth. The fern-like foliage of this species is very distinctive. Leaves are 10-34 cm long, 9-15 cm wide, variably pinnate to bipinnate, with a glabrous green upper surface and subsericeous silvery under-surface. Petioles are 1.5-6.5 cm long. The species is semi-deciduous in its natural range, being almost leafless shortly before flowering. The flowers are grouped into compound racemose inflorescences (conflorescences, after Johnson and Briggs (1975)), which themselves are grouped into panicles of one to six conflorescences, borne on older wood. The bright orange flowers, about 2 cm long, are borne in numerous pairs along the flower spikes, on pedicels 1.5 cm long. The perianth consists of 4 narrow tepals, 0.6-1 cm long, with the concave summit of each tepal holding a small anther 0.1 cm long. The ovary surmounts a gynophore 0.2-0.3 cm long. Fruits are two-seeded follicles 2 cm in length, with a slender persistent style. Seeds are winged, 13-19 mm long, 8-10 mm wide, 0.8-0.9 mm thick, with a papery wing around the brown, ovate central seed body.


Source: cabi.org
Description

The following description is adapted from Austin and Staples (1991) and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2005)

Impact

Turbina corymbosa is a perennial, neotropical vine that has been introduced as an ornamental in the Canary Islands, Australia and several Old World countries. It is a serious problem in northern Queensland, Australia, where it is invading rainforest ecosystems and displacing native vines and shrubs, and is sometimes considered an environmental and agricultural weed elsewhere.

Hosts

It is reported as a weed of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and orange (Citrus sinensis) crops in Cuba (Sampedro Romero et al., 2002;Castellón-Estévez et al., 2011).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Galls
Description

Spermogonia on stems and leaves, brownish to orange-brown, flat to somewhat concave fruiting bodies. Aecia on stems and leaves, producing galls, 5 cm diameter or more, yellowish-orange, powdery, subepidermal, ruptured epidermis evident, scattered, pulverulent, covering entire surface of galls, soon exposed, surrounded by ruptured epidermis;on stems subcortical, linear or narrowly oblong, 1 cm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide, opening by a longitudinal, median rupture;on leaves in bright golden-yellow spots 0.1-2.0 mm diameter;aeciospores pedicellate, pale-yellow, ellipsoid, globoid, or oblong-ellipsoid, 25-40 x 16-25 µm, walls nearly hyaline, 1-3 µm thick, 4-7 µm thick at apex, verrucose, verrucae arranged in lines from both ends, forming spiral striations, germ pores two, obscure. Uredinia on lower surfaces of leaves, pale-yellow, round or irregular round, 0.1-0.5 mm diameter, subepidermal;urediniospores ellipsoid to globoid, 25-33 x 18-24 µm, hyaline to yellowish, with spiral striations, walls 1-3 µm thick, becoming 4-7 µm thick at apex. Telia on lower surface of leaves, white to pale-yellow, subepidermal in origin, rounded or irregular rounded, 1-4 mm diameter, erumpent, scattered, aggregated, aparaphysate;teliospores pedicellate, clavate or long-cuneate, 1-3-septate, 67-110 µm long, oblong or ellipsoid, upper part ending in digital or crown-like projections or attenuate or flat, each cell 24-60 x 17-24 µm, wall 1.5-2.0 µm thick laterally, 5-8 µm thick at apex, hyaline to pale-yellow, germ pores obscure, but germinating without dormancy, germ tube emerging from apical corners;pericel thick, as long as a probasidial cell. See Hern‡ndez and Hennen (2003) for a more detailed description.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

A. indicus is a typical Anser Ôgrey gooseÕ in size and shape, with a pale greyish body, dark-tipped yellow bill, pale orange legs and a white head with a dark bar from eye to eye across the upper nape and a second bar across the lower nape. In flight it appears pale with a blackish trailing edge to the wing. For more details see for example Kear (2005).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Spermogonia often lacking, if present, epiphyllous (on upper side of leaf), punctiform, not seen to open, orange-yellow to brown. Telia hypophyllous (on lower side of leaf), sometimes on amphigenous, with peridia, slightly elevated forming densely clustered, yellow to brown orbicular spots, 2-10 mm diameter, resembling an aecidial state, cupulate, 200-270 µm diameter, with whitish, lacerate margins. Teliospores globose to broadly ellipsoid, slightly angular, 15-20 x 13-17 µm, walls hyaline, finely verrucose, 1 µm thick. Peridial cells rhomboid to rectangular, 18-28 x 14-22 µm, inner walls verrucose, 3-4 µm thick, outer walls finely striate, 6-8 µm thick. On living leaves. See Stevens and Mendiola (1931) and Hiratsuka et al. (1992) for more detailed descriptions.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Spermogonia and aecia unknown. Uredinia hypophyllous, sparse, minute, orange-yellow;urediniospores globose, subglobose or ellipsoid, 18-28 x 13-20 µm, walls yellow, echinulate, 1-2 µm thick, germ pores five to six, scattered. Telia amphigenous, mainly hypophyllous, filiform, up to 8 mm, white or pale-yellow;teliospores cylindrical or obclavate to acicular, 2-5-septate (mostly 3-4-septate) constricted at septum, 120-240 µm x 16-25 µm, apical cells long, 20-35 µm long, acuminate at apices, walls yellow, smooth, germ pores one per cell;pedicels long, persistent, up to 800 µm long, 10-15 µm wide. See Monoson (1969) and Hiratsuka et al. (1992) for more detailed descriptions.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

R. philippinarum is a bivalve mollusc with a solid equivalve broadly oval shell and anterior beaks. External shell sculpture consists of radiating ribs and concentric grooves with the latter becoming deeper towards the posterior and anterior regions making the shell surface decussate. The shell is variable in external colour from white to yellow or brown, often with radiating darker bands expanding from the beaks or dark blotches (see Pictures). The inside of the shell is white with an orange tint and sometimes with a posterior purple area typically including the pallial sinus, which extends towards but not beyond the centre line. The holotype is located in the Natural History Museum, London, UK.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

S. namaycush has a deeply forked caudal fin and a slate grey to greenish body with lighter undersides. Cream to yellow spots are generally present on the head, body and dorsal and caudal fins. The lower fins tend to be orange-red with a narrow white edge. The species has nine to twelve gill rakers. Breeding males will develop a dark stripe on their sides temporarily (Lenart, 2001).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Spermogonia intraepidermal. Aecia like uredinia. Uredinia epiphyllous (on upper surface of leaf), solitary or a few aggregated on small yellow or purple spots, small, rounded, 0.1-0.3 mm diameter, covered by epidermis, orange-yellow, reddish-brown or yellowish-brown;urediniospores globose, ovate or ovate-ellipsoid, sparsely echinulate, hyaline or pale-yellowish, 22-35 x 16-26 µm, wall 2-3 µm thick. Telia hypophyllous (on lower side of leaf), white, developing in minute, rounded, yellow lesions;teliospores formed on cells emerging through stomata, globose, short-pedicellate, 20-30 x 18-22 µm, walls smooth, thin, hyaline. See Ito (1950) and Hirastuka et al. (1992) for more detailed descriptions.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

G. pulchella is an annual, biennial and sometimes perennial herb, 5Ð35(Ð60+) cm. Leaves cauline;petiolar bases 0Ð3+ cm;blades linear, oblong, or spatulate, 1Ð5(Ð12) cm ? 4Ð12(Ð35) mm, (bases of distal ± clasping) margins usually entire, sometimes toothed or lobed, faces closely strigillose or hirtellous to ± villous (hairs jointed). Peduncles 3Ð10(Ð20) cm. Phyllaries 18Ð28, narrowly triangular- to linear-attenuate, 6Ð14 mm, usually ciliate with jointed hairs. Receptacular setae 1.5Ð3 mm. Ray florets usually 8Ð14, rarely 0;corollas usually reddish to purplish proximally, yellow to orange distally, rarely yellow, reddish, or purplish throughout, 13Ð30 mm. Disc florets 40Ð100;corollas yellowish to purple or brown, often bicolored, tubes 0.8Ð1.2 mm, throats campanulate to urceolate, 3Ð4 mm, lobes deltate to ovate, often attenuate, 1Ð3 mm, jointed hairs 0.3 mm. Cypselae obpyramidal, 2Ð2.5 mm, hairs 1.5Ð2 mm, inserted at bases and on angles;pappi of 7Ð8 deltate to lanceolate, aristate scales 4Ð7 mm (scarious bases 1Ð2.5 ? 0.7Ð1.3 mm;Barkley et al., 2006).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

S. campanulata is a medium-size to large tree up to 35 m tall and 175 cm in diameter. It has a stout and sometimes buttressed trunk, thick branches spotted with small white lenticels. L eaves are usually opposite (rarely 3 at a node), very widely diverging, up to 50 cm long, (7-) 11-15 (-17) leaflets broadly elliptic or ovate, entire, to 15 x 7.5 cm, with 7-8 principal veins on each side, puberulent and prominent beneath, apex very slightly acuminate, base somewhat asymmetrically obtuse, lower leaflets tending to be reflexed, petiolule short, 2-3 mm, rachis nearly straight, brownish-puberulent, petiole up to 6 cm long, thickened at base. Raceme are 8-10 cm long on a peduncle of about the same length, with a pair of reduced leaves about halfway up, rachis and pedicels thick, brownish puberulent, bracts subtending pedicels lanceolate, curved, about 1 cm long, caducous, pair of bractlets near summit of pedicel similar, opposite;calyx strongly curved upward, asymmetric, about 5 cm long, tapering, somewhat ribbed, splitting at anthesis to within a few mm of base along dorsal curve, apex horn-like, blunt, exterior brownish sericeous puberulent;corolla bright vermilion or scarlet, 10-12 cm long, mouth of limb about 7 cm across, lobes about 3 cm long, obtuse, margins strongly crispate, orange-yellow;filaments about 5 cm long, dull orange anthers arcuate, linear, very dark brown, 15 mm long;style yellow, 8 cm long, stigma reddish. Fruit capsules are lanceolate, slightly compressed, 17-25 x 3.5-7 cm (adapted from PIER, 2008).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

C. sulphureus is an annual herb 0.3-2 m tall, taprooted. Stems erect, branched, glabrous or sparsely pilose to hispid. Leaves cauline, alternate, deeply lobed;petioles 10-70 mm long;blades 50-250 mm long;ultimate lobes 2-5 mm wide;margins sparsely spinulose-ciliate;apices apiculate. Synflorescences 100-200 mm long, spreading-ascending;bractlets linear-subulate 5-10 mm long with acute apices. Capitula 6-10 mm diameter;involucral bracts erect, oblong-lanceolate, 9-18 mm long with acute to rounded-obtuse apices;ray florets 8(+ in some cultivars) golden yellow to red-orange;laminae obovate, 18-30 mm long with truncate, denticulate apices;disc florets 6-7 mm long. Cypselae light brown, flattened, 1.5-3 mm long, hispidulous, rarely glabrous;pappus absent, or with two or three widely divergent awns, 1-7 mm long (description compiled from Beentje and Hind, 2005;Kiger, 2006;Chen and Hind, 2011;C Puttock, Smithsonian Institution, USA, personal observation).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

D. erecta is a sprawling or vine-like tender evergreen shrub or small tree, growing up to 7 m tall and spreading to an equal width (Munir, 1995;Floridata, 2015). It typically grows in a clump with multiple branches that droop towards the ground (Floridata, 2015). The bark is light brown and slightly furrowed (Andreu et al., 2010). The stems of mature plants usually have sharp axillary thorns, which are absent in younger plants of this species (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). Leaves are ovate, paired, opposite, and between 2.5 and 7.6 cm long (Floridata, 2015). Flowers hang in long racemes (approx. 15 cm) and are small, tubular and range from purple and white to violet or blue (Andreu et al., 2010). The fruit is approximately 7-10 mm in diameter, subglobose or obpyriform and is orange-yellow in colour (Munir, 1995).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

C. elegans is a slender, erect or infrequently decumbent palm, to 2 m tall or more but flowering when very small and less than 30 cm tall, then appearing stemless. Stem 0.8-1.5 cm diameter, green, densely ringed with prominent nodes, internodes 0.5-3 cm long. Leaves 5-8, spreading, pinnate, sheath 8-20 cm long, very obliquely open nearly to base and tubular only in lower 1/3, short ligule apically on either side of petiole, margins brownish and ragged, light green or whitish below margin, longitudinally greenstriate-nerved, petiole 10-40 cm long, slender, grooved and green above, rounded and pale below, rachis 15-60 cm long, very slender, 4-sided, angled and green above, rounded below with narrow yellow band extending onto petiole, pinnae 11-21 on each side of rachis, 15-30 ? 1-3 cm, linear to narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate, contracted basally, thin, dark green, midrib prominent and pale, elevated or keeled above, 1-2 less prominent primary nerves on each side of midrib, secondaries numerous, faint.;Inflorescences erect, shorter than or equal to or greatly exceeding leaves, peduncles 15-90 cm long, 5-9 mm wide at base, ± flattened, 4-6 mm wide at apex, rounded, green where exposed in flower, red-orange in fruit. Staminate with 4-7 bracts, uppermost exceeding peduncle, largest to 35 cm long, acuminate and bifid apically, fibrous or ± papery, rachis 1.5-20 cm long, longitudinally ridged or angled, green, rachillae 5-35, lower ones the longest, these to 15 cm long, becoming progressively shorter toward apex of rachis, 2 mm diameter, spreading, simple or branched, sharply angled, green. Pistillate similar to that of staminate but with 6-10 bracts, rachis slightly shorter, flexuous, orange in fruit, rachillae fewer in number and shorter than those of staminate, to 10 cm long, ± stiff, green in flower, red-orange in fruit. Staminate flowers in remote to moderate spirals, 3 ? 4 mm, depressed-globose, yellow, aromatic, nerved when dry, sessile or slightly sunken in elliptic depressions, calyx 0.75-1 ? 2-2.5 mm, moderately lobed, green, petals 2.5 ? 2 mm, connate, corolla opening by a 3-angled pore apically, fleshy, stamens 1.5-2 mm long, filaments connate, whitish, anthers 0.75-1 mm long, entire, yellow, pistillode equal to or slightly exceeding corolla, 6-angled, flared slightly apically, pale yellow-green. Pistillate flowers in remote spirals, 3 ? 2.75 mm, globose, yellow, nerved when dry, slightly sunken in elliptic depressions 1-1.5 mm long, calyx 1 ? 2 mm, deeply lobed, green, petals 2-2.5 ? 1.5-2 mm, connate, corolla opening by a 3-angled pore apically, thick, fleshy, fruits 4-7 mm diameter, globose, black, seeds 3-6 mm diameter, globose (Hodel, 1992).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

E. japonicus grows as an evergreen shrub or small tree that can reach up to 3 m, sometimes dwarfed. Branches are grey-green to grey-brown, terete glabrous and sturdy. Twigs are green to light green, glabrous, and not evidently striate, especially when fresh. The petiole is 3-10 mm long. Leaf blades are leathery or thickly leathery, ovate, obovate, orbicular-ovate or long ovate, measuring (3-)5-10(-12) x (2-)3-5(-5.5) cm, base orbicular or semiorbicular, margin crenulate distally, nearly entire proximally, apex orbicular or semiorbicular;lateral veins 6-8 pairs, slightly visible or unclear, especially when dry. Leaves are often variegated in cultivated varieties. Cymes usually axillary, sometimes terminal, many branched with many flowers;peduncle up to 8 cm, sub-branches 2-4 cm;pedicel 4-7 mm. Flowers are 4-merous, 5-6 mm in diameter;sepals nearly orbicular;petals greenish white or yellowish green, sometimes cream, nearly orbicular. Capsule globose or subglobose, brown or yellow-brown to red-brown, 6-9(-12) mm in diameter, 4-lobed. Seeds 2 per locule, 5 x 3.5 mm, dark brown, globose;aril orange-red (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Biological Control
E. japonicus is damaged by a wide range of insects, pathogens and nematodes but there are no reports of attempts at exploiting these for biological control.

Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

C. intestinalis is a solitary, translucent ascidian that can have a pale yellow or pale green hue. If individuals are not fouled by algae or invertebrates, ten muscle bands that run the length of the body are visible, and pale orange internal organs are seen through the translucent body. The brachial siphon has eight lobes and the atrial siphon has six lobes. Both siphons may have yellow or orange margins.

Hosts

C. intestinalis can quickly form dense aggregations, which can smother and eventually exclude other fouling species and exert heavy grazing pressure on the local phytoplankton and bacterial communities (Peterson and RiisgŒrd, 1992;Lambert and Lambert, 1998;RiisgŒrd et al., 1998;Blum et al., 2007;Petersen, 2007). In Tasmania, C. intestinalis was found to harbour the amoeba, Neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, which is responsible for amoebic gill disease in farmed salmon (Tan et al., 2002).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a large rodent (5-9kg;40-60cm body;30-45cm tail), superficially rat-like, pelage brown and yellow-brown in colour with a cylindrical tail. It has webbed hindfeet, with a footprint up to 15cm long, imprints of the web is often visible;incisors are prominent and bright orange-yellow (unlike rats which are yellow-brown), with white marks on muzzle (Woods et al. 1992, Carter and Leonard 2002). Faeces cylindrical, up to 70mm long, with fine longitudinal striations (LeBlanc, 1994).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Deciduous, densely tufted bamboo, culms 7Ð17 m, (3Ð)6Ð10 cm in diameter, internodes 30Ð45 cm, white powdery, wall thick, culm often solid. Branches several, main mid-culm ones 3. Culm sheaths deciduous, orange-brown, approximately 3/4 as long as internodes, thickly papery, margins ciliate, apex rounded, auricles absent, ligule 1Ð3 mm, serrulate, blade erect, narrowly triangular. Leaf sheaths initially sparsely hairy, becoming glabrous, ligule short, serrulate, blade usually narrowly lanceolate, 5Ð30 ? 1Ð3 cm. Pseudospikelet clusters 2.5Ð5 cm in diameter. Spikelets 8Ð15 mm, usually densely pubescent, fertile florets 2Ð4. Glumes 2 or more, 6Ð8 mm, long mucronate, lemma 9Ð10 mm, apex long mucronate, palea 8Ð9 mm. Anthers yellow, approximately 5 mm, connective apically produced. Caryopsis brown, shining, ovoid to sub-globose, about 8 mm long, hairy above, beaked with the persistent base of the style, pericarp coriaceous (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015, Flora of Pakistan, 2015).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

Dovyalis caffra is a dioecious shrub or small, evergreen tree, usually 3-5 m in height with a many-branched crown. The smooth bark is grey on young branches, though fissured and flaky to corky on old branches and stems. Young branches are heavily armed with long (4-7 cm) spines, but the stem has few spines. The simple leaves occur in tight clusters on dwarf lateral branches and alternate on young shoots. Each leaf is obovate 2-5.5 cm by 0.5-3 cm with a rounded apex and tapering base on 5 mm-long petioles. The small creamish-green flowers occur in dense clusters. The male flowers are 3 mm long in dense clusters of five to 10, while the female flowers are solitary or occur in groups of up to three on stalks 4-10 mm long in the leaf axils. The fleshy fruit is almost spherical and up to 6 cm in diameter. The fruit skin turns from green to yellow-orange with a velvety surface when ripe. The pulp encloses about 12 hairy seeds in two circles.


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Yellows
Description

S. podophyllum is a vine attaining up to 10 metres in length, climbing by means of adventitious roots produced at the nodes. Stems cylindrical, glaucous, 1-2 cm in diameter, producing milky latex when wounded. Juvenile plants with hastate leaves;adult plants with dimorphic leaves, the basal leaves hastate, the distal leaves digitate, with 3-11 leaflets, coriaceous, united or free at the base, the basal leaflets smaller and auriculate at the base, the middle leaflets 16-38 ? 6-17 cm, obovate, elliptical, or lanceolate, with acuminate apex;petioles 15-60 cm long, almost cylindrical;inflorescences in groups of 4-11, ascendant;peduncles 8-9 cm long, slender;spathe ca. 10 cm long, convolute at the base to form a tube, the limb cream-coloured on the inner surface, green outside, concave, ephemeral;spadix whitish, sessile, cylindrical, with a constriction between the area of pistillate flowers and the staminate flowers. Fruit is a syncarp, ovoid, red, reddish orange, or yellow, 3-5.5 cm long (Acevedo-Rodr’guez, 2005;Acevedo-Rodr’guez and Strong, 2005).


Source: cabi.org
Citrus sinensis Brown spot
Description

Succulent herbs, monocarpic, pale green mottled with violet-brown, glaucous. Stems are simple, 5-20 dm ? 0.5-1 cm. Leaves mostly opposite or whorled in sets of three, evenly spaced, simple, petiole and blade indistinguishable, reddish green to gray-green with reddish brown spots, narrowly oblong, subcylindric, grooved adaxially, 3-15 cm ? 3-6 mm, margins entire except for 3-9 conic teeth at apex, apex blunt, surfaces not glaucous, plantlets borne between teeth, spurs spoon-shaped. Inflorescence of dense, corymbiform cymes, 0.5-2 dm diameter, branches to 3 cm long. Pedicels 5-30 mm. Flowers pendent, calyx pale green, not inflated, 8-16 mm long, with triangular lobes that are longer than tube and acuminate at apex, corolla orange to scarlet, 25-40 mm long, not contracted basally, lobes obovate, 6-12 mm long, with rounded or apiculate apex. Fruits dry, indehiscent, papery follicles, ca. 10 mm long, with numerous minute (ca. 1 mm long) brown-coloured seeds (Moran, 2009, BioNET-EAFRINET, 2011).

Biological Control
Witt and Rajaonarison (2004) surveyed insects in the native range of this species in Madagascar, and identified Osphilia tenuipes, Rhembastus sp. and Eurytoma sp. as potential biological control agents. In Australia, the South African citrus thrip (Scirtothrips aurantii) has been used as a biological control agent of Kalanchoe species. Thrips damage the outer tissue of Kalanchoe plants and also lay their eggs under the outer tissue (Queensland Government, 2011). Garms et al. (2013) suggest that due to polyphagy of the thrips under laboratory conditions, caution is needed before promoting use for biological control. However, Rafter and Walter (2013) demonstrated that in the field the realized host range of S. aurantii in Australia is restricted to Crassulaceae.

Source: cabi.org