B. asiatica is a large tree, 7 to 25 m tall, growing as a mangrove associate on sandy and rocky shores. Branches stout;bark fissured. Leaves sessile, obovate to obovate-oblong, 20-40 ? 10-20 cm, leathery, shiny, base cuneate, margin entire, apex obtuse or broadly rounded. Racemes mostly terminal, erect, 5-15 cm, 5-10(-20)-flowered;bracts ovate, 8-20 mm;bracteoles triangular, 1.5-5 mm. Pedicel 5-9 cm. Flower buds 2-4 cm in diam. Calyx undivided, rupturing at anthesis into 2 or 3 unequal, rounded or acuminate, persistent lobes 3-4 ? 2-3 cm and a tube 3-5 mm. Petals 4, white, ovate or elliptic, 5-6 cm. Stamens in 6 whorls;tube 1.5-6 mm;filaments and style white, red-tipped;outer filaments 7-9 cm. Ovary 4-loculed, 5-9 mm;ovules 4 or 5 per locule;style 11-13 cm. Fruit dispersed by floating, broadly pyramidal, smooth, 9-11 cm, apex tapering and crowned by calyx;pericarp spongy, fibrous, green at first than turning brown when ripe and floats on water. The middle layer is spongy (like the coconut) and contains air sacs to help the fruit float (Polunin, 1987;Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bangladesh , September 2013 Coconut Mite Recognize the problem The coconut mite is becoming a predominant pest of coconuts in Bangladesh. The introductions of these mites have caused severe damage to coconut and are a real threat to coconut production and marketing. The mites are microscopic but their damage can be enormous and hundreds of mites can be seen in each infested button and tender nut. One of the visible symptoms of these mites is a brown discoloration noticed in patches on the husk....
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Trinidad and Tobago , November 2011 Palm weevil Recognize the problem These insects live inside of palm plants and destroy them. They also spread the nematode that causes the red ring disease. The weevils cause the crown leaves to dry and turn yellow. The new leaves and the flowers die. The red ring can be seen when the stems of infected plants are cut. In the late stage of infestation the plant gives off a bad smell. Background The female weevil lays white eggs one or two millimetres deep...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Trinidad and Tobago , December 2013 Guard Basket traps for control of Palm Weevil in Coconut Recognize the problem The palm weevil vectors the red ring nematode inside its body and carries it to the trunk of healthy trees. The nematode enters the palm though wounds and causes death of the coconut palm. Background Guard baskets are designed to protect the estate from frequent outbreaks of the disease. They do so by attracting and killing the Palm Weevils which may enter from nearby diseased trees...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Button Shedding in Coconut Recognize the problem Premature button shedding is a very common problem observed on coconut. Buttons can be shed after fertilization and some nuts are shed after setting. This is not due to a single cause but may be due to combination of one or more factors. The economic loss ranges from 10 to 20%. Background Shedding of buttons and premature nuts may be due to one or more of the following: excess acidity or alkalinity, poor drainage facilities,...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Red Palm Weevil of Coconut Recognize the problem The red palm weevil is one of the major pests infesting palm crops like coconut, sago and other palm trees. On the infested trees, a reddish brown liquid is seen oozing out from the hole in the stem close to the ground. The liquid gives off a rotten smell. Background The red palm weevil is one of the most destructive pests of coconut. The grubs cause damage inside the stem and crown by feeding on soft tissues. When the infestation is severe, the inside portion of trunk is...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Rhinoceros Beetle in Coconut Recognize the problem The Rhinoceros beetle is a black-coloured horned beetle which is active at night and hides in feeding or breeding sites during the day. The beetle attacks the young leaf fronds which, when fully opened, show characteristic diamond shaped cuts. Repeated attack can destroy the top portion resulting in the death of the palm. Background The adult beetles from the manure pits or the nearby trees bore into the opened fronds of...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Grenada , October 2012 Control of the Coconut Palm Weevil Recognize the problem The coconut palm weevil causes major economic damage to coconut trees, especially the dwarf varieties. It causes the young leaves to turn yellow and die. It can spread red ring disease and mites. The weevils bore in to oil palm and trunks of coconut trees and feed on them. An infested tree grows slowly and the crown or tip of the palm starts to wilt. The young and mature nuts drop, green branches fall off and the young clusters dry up. Background The adult female...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Kenya , December 2012 Bugs on Mango Recognize the problem The most common bugs found in mango orchards include the Helopeltis bugs also called mosquito bugs, Tip wilters and the Coconut bug. Both young and adult bugs feed on young flesh on the mid-vein of young leaves, or on flower stalks, causing wilting and death of new growth. They also feed on young fruits causing immature fruits to become deformed and fall. Background When bugs are disturbed they either fly away or fall to the ground or to...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Coconut Basal Stem End Rot Recognize the problem This chronic problem was first noticed in Tanjore in Tamil Nadu and hence is sometimes known as Tanjore wilt disease. It later spread to all coconut growing tracts of India. In the initial stages of the disease, profuse bearing of nuts is noticed. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are the exudation of reddish brown liquid through cracks, stem discolouration and internal rotting up to the height of bleeding. In later...
Potassium Salts of Fatty Acids (Technical Fact Sheet) For less technical information, please refer to the General Fact Sheet What are potassium salts of fatty acids? Potassium sa lts of fatty acids are commonly called soap salts. They are used as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and algaecides. The first pesticide product containing soap salts was registered for use in 1947 (1). Potassium salts of fatty acids are produced by adding potassium hydroxide to fatty acids found in animal fats and in plant oils. Fatty acids are extracted from palm, coconut, olive...
Red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Figure 1. Red palm weevil adult intercepted in the UK on a gourd imported from Sri Lanka © Fera Background Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a highly invasive pest of palms that can have a significant economic, environmental and social impact when introduced into new geographical areas. It is the most important pest of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the world and a serious pest of coconut (Cocos nucifera). It is native to southern Asia and Melanesia but since the 1980s it has rapidly expanded its...
Photo 1 . M asse s o f a d ult s a n d n ym phs o f th e c o co nut (f a ls e ) s ca le s, Asp id io tu s r ig id us , o n th e le af o f a c o co nut. Photo 2 . Y ello w in g o f m atu re p alm s, d ue t o in fe sta tio n o f c o co nut (f a ls e ) s ca le , Asp id io tu s rig id us. Photo 3 . Y ello w in g a n d d ry in g o f le afle ts o f a co co nut f ro nd in fe ste d b y t h e c o co nut (f a ls e ) sca le , Asp id io tu s r ig id us. Photo 4 . C lo se -u p o f f e m ale c o co nut (f a ls e ) sca le , Asp id io tu s r ig id us , s h ow in g t h e c re sce n t of e gg s k...
Photo 1 . Asp erg illu s f la vu s s p oru la tin g o n co pra . Photo 2 . Asp erg illu s f la vu s s p oru la tin g o n s e ed of p ean ut in sid e d am aged p ods. Photo 3 . M aiz e c o b w it h in fe cte d kern els o f Asp erg illu s f la vu s . Photo 4 . C lo se u p o f m aiz e k ern els t o s h ow sp oru la tin g c o lo nie s o f Asp erg illu s f la vu s. P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets C oco nut A sp erg illu s m ould ( 2 33) C oco nut A sp erg illu s m ould ( 2 33) C om mon N am e...
Photo 1 . D yin g a n d d ead c o co nut palm s w it h Bogia c o co nut s y n dro m e, M ad an g P ro vin ce , Pap ua N ew Guin ea. Photo 2 . C oco nuts s h ow in g s ig n s o f B ogia sy n dro m e, w here as t h e b ete l n uts a re m ostly healt h y. Photo 3 . Y ello w in g o f fro nds is a n e arly sy m pto m o n p alm s w it h B ogia c o co nut sy n dro m e, M ad an g P ro vin ce , P ap ua New Guin ea. Photo 4 . In m an y p la n ta tio ns in M ad an g Pro vin ce , P ap ua N ew G uin ea, c o co nut p alm s have b een k ille d b y B ogia c o co nut sy n dro m e....
Photo 1. Bud rot of coconut showing the collapse of the spear and younger leaves due to infection by Phytophthora palmivora, while the older leaves appear relatively healthy at this time. Photo 2. Nuts are also infected by coconut bud rot causing premature nutfall. In this case, Phytophthora hevae was isolated from the rot. Photo 3. Slices from nuts (Photo 2) showing internal infections by Phytophthora hevae. Photo 4. Basal stem rot of coconut seedling, caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Photo 5. Coconut seedling (Photo 4) cut open to show the internal infection by Phytophthora...
Photo 1 . C otto ny g ro w th o f Mara sm ie llu s in oderm a a t t h e b ase o f a c o co nut s h oot. Photo 2 . S eed lin g w it h c o tto ny g ro w th o f Mara sm ie llu s in oderm a o ver t h e le aves. T h e gro w th o f th e s e ed lin g is p oor d ue t o t h e in fe ctio n. Photo 3 . T o ad sto ols o f Mara sm ie llu s in oderm a on c o co nut. T h ey d evelo ped o n a c o co nut lo g, but sim ila r t o ad sto ols f o rm s o n s e ed nuts . Photo 4 . N ew le aves o f b an an a a re s lo w t o em erg e d ue t o in fe ctio n of p se u doste m s b y Mara sm ie...
Photo 1 . S ym pto m s o f F in sch hafe n d is o rd er o n an o il p alm le af. Photo 2 . A dult p la n th opper Zo phiu m a buta w en gi : s id e v ie w . Photo 3 . A dult p la n th opper, Zo phiu m a buta w en gi , s h ow in g t h e c h ara cte ris tic p atte rn s on t h e w in gs. Map . L o ca tio ns in P ap ua N ew G uin ea w here th ere h ave b een o utb re aks o f t h e F in sch affe n dis o rd er. P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets C oco nut F in sch hafe n d is o rd er ( 2 80) C oco nut F...
Photo 1 . M ale a d ult , c o co nut f la t m oth , Ago noxen a a rg au la . Photo 2 . F em ale a d ult , c o co nut f la t m oth , Ago noxen a a rg au la . Photo 3 . E ggs o f c o co nut f la t m oth , Ago noxen a arg au la , o n t h e u nders id e o f a s w eet p ota to le af. Photo 4 . C ate rp illa r, c o co nut f la t m oth , Ago noxen a a rg au la . Photo 5 . " W in dow s" in c o co nut le afle ts c a u se d by t h e f e ed in g o f t h e c o co nut f la t m oth , Ago noxen a sp ecie s (p ro bab ly , Ago noxen a pyro gra m ma , S o lo m on Is la n ds. Photo 6 ....
Photo 1 . In te n se y ello w in g o f mid -s e ctio n fro nds. O ne o f t h em is h an gin g d ow n b eca u se of a b ro ken p etio le , w here as t h e yo ungest a n d old est f ro nds a re s till g re en . Photo 2 . F o lia r d eca y o n M ala yan d w arf se ed in g. Photo 3 . S u sce p tib le M ala yan d w arf s h ow in g sy m pto m s o f co co nut f o lia r d eca y. Photo 4 . M ala yan D w arf v arie ty w it h c o co nut fo lia r d eca y s h ow in g s e vere y ello w in g o f t h e fro nds. Photo 5 . L if e s ta ges o f t h e in se ct t h at t ra n sm it s Coco nut...
Photo 1 . A dult h is p in e b eetle s, Bro ntis p a lo ngis sim a , b etw een t h e le afle ts o f t h e s p ear le af. Photo 2 . L arg e a re as o f d eca y c a u se d b y t h e fe ed in g o f t h e h is p in e b eetle , Bro ntis p a lo ngis sim a , o n t h e v arie ty Mala yan D w arf. Photo 3 . S evere ly d eca yed le aves o f M ala yan dw arf s e ed lin g c a u se d b y t h e c o co nut h is p in e beetle , B ro ntis p a lo ngis sim a. P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets C oco nut h is p in e...
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Mnazi wa kipemba
Mnazi wa kitemli
Tree of heaven
Tree of life
Palma de coco
Palma de coco
P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.
Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).
Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).
Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.
Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
Annual herb to subshrub, many branched, erect to sprawling, 10-60 cm tall. Stem viscid-pilose, with intermixed glandular and non-glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, subsessile to short petiolate, elliptic, oval ovate, rarely obovate, with acute apex, 1.5-6 cm long. Flowers arising from leaf axils, solitary, 4.5-7 mm long, floral tube sparsely pubescent with glandular hairs, green, calyx lobes unequal, deltoid, short bristle-tipped, 6 petals, 2-3 mm long, linear-elliptic, pale purple, stamens longer than the floral tube. 3 seeds, 2 mm long, lenticular, olive to brown with pale edges (Graham, 1975).
Cuphea carthagenensis is an annual herb of moist habitats. Although its native range is uncertain, it is likely to cover parts of Central America and the Caribbean, and South America. It has become naturalized widely outside of its native range, in Central America, North America, the Caribbean, Oceania, and Asia. In its native and introduced range it is a weed of cultivated lands and disturbed sites, and sometimes invades intact natural areas in low densities. In Indonesia, where it dominates maize (Zea Mays), it is considered one of the top ten weeds (Solfiyeni et al., 2013). Several other species of Cuphea are also recorded as invasive (e.g. PIER, 2015).
C. carthagenensis has been listed as a weed of a number of agricultural crops. In its native range in Brazil it is considered one of the most important weeds by (Pio, 1980) because of its abundance and competitive effects in Brazilian state of São Paulo, but which crops were affected were not specified. In Hawaii, USA, C. carthagenensis is a weed of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (Valenzuela et al., 1994). In Assam, India, it is a dominant weed of rice (Oryza sativa) (Randhawa et al., 2006). In Indonesia, it dominates corn (Zea Mays) plantings (Solfiyeni et al., 2013). On Vanuatu, it is a serious pest of coconut (Cocos nucifera) groves and in pastures (Mullen, 2009). It is also a weed of taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Fiji (Heap, 2015) and of pastures (Robert, 1970). Laca-Buendia et al. (1989) reported it to be a sporadic weed of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Brazil.