(Coffea)

Description

Resources

47 resources available. Click on the image to preview, click on the publisher link to download.

Cultural control of root nematodes in coffee

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, December 2014 Cultural control of root nematodes in coffee Recognize the problem Root-knot nematodes are roundworms that live in the soil and attack coffee roots. They are microscopic, so you cannot see them. They damage the roots. They cause the roots to swell, produce tiny galls, and crack. The damage hinders transport of water and nutrients from roots to the upper plant. This results in yellowing of leaves, wilting of foliage of the entire plant (particularly in dry days). In heavy infestations, the plant can die....

Published at: plantwise.org

Rust on coffee

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Published at: plantwise.org

Purple blotch in onions

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Purple blotch in onions Recognize the problem Purple blotch is one of the diseases that cause most damage to the onion. It causes deep white spots with a yellow halo and a purple or red centre. In humid climates, the spot surface becomes dark or coffee-colored. Within 2 to 3 weeks, these spots surround the leaves. In the bulbs, the infection appears close to maturity. It appears as a watery rot on the neck, penetrating towards the centre of the bulb. Background The purple...

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Sugarcane white grub

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Sugarcane white grub Recognize the problem This insect pest is known as white grub or root borer. The worms are curved (C-shaped) and white to cream. Their head is coffee-colored and their tail is dark with some hair. The grubs can measure around 5 cm in length. In a young cane, the grubs eat the cane ’ s roots and shoots. Be aware, especially in the re-growth of ratoon, since at this stage the attack is more severe and may lead to considerable losses. Background...

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Helminthosporiosis in rice

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Helminthosporiosis in rice Recognize the problem This is one of the most important diseases affecting rice. It can attack in any stage of development, but the damage is worse at the end of the cycle because it drastically decreases the yield and the quality. It looks like coal. Small oval brown spots with a grey center appear on the leaves. Strong attacks can make leaves dry. Dark coffee-colored spots appear in the panicle and severe attacks cause spots in the grain and loss...

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Onion thrip control

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Honduras , November 2012 Onion thrip control Recognize the problem The thrips develop in the onion as well as in weeds and on the soil. Thrips are very small, about the size of a grain of sand, and are hidden in the leaf axils of onion. While feeding, they scrape the leaf surface and leave a free entrance to fungal diseases. Young adults are transparent white but soon become dark and coffee-coloured. Background The thrip lays its eggs on the forage and on volunteer plants. The thrips eat a...

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Mealy bug management in coffee

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Tanzania , October 2012 Mealy bug management in coffee Recognize the problem Coffee mealy bugs, also called Kenya mealy bugs, are pests of coffee. The pest attacks both Arabica and Robusta coffee. These small oval and flattened insects are just big enough to be seen by eyes (2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide). Their body is whitish- yellowish and segmented, but this is not easily seen as the body is often covered with white wax. White masses of bugs can be seen on upper side of leaves, and between...

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Coffee berry disease

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Attract ants against white stem borer in coffee

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Tanzania , November 2012 Attract ants against white stem borer in coffee Recognize the problem African coffee white stem borers (CWB) are dark-grey and white-grey beetles up to 3 cm long with long dark antennae. Adult beetles are difficult to find, but can sometimes be seen on young leaves and green twigs. The 2 to 3 cm long pencil-thick young, called larvae, are white-yellowish. They feed inside the stem. You may find small holes in the bark, which lead to tunnels in the stem....

Published at: plantwise.org

Coffee wilt disease

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Kenya , September 2011 Coffee wilt disease Recognize the problem Coffee wilt disease can kill coffee plants. At first, the leaves of affected plants become yellow, wilt, shrivel and fall off. The disease causes blue-black staining of the wood below the bark " ganda ". Finally, the tree loses all leaves and dies. Background Coffee wilt disease is caused by a fungus which spreads quickly within the tree. It will also spread from diseased trees to healthy trees in planting material, water, soil...

Published at: plantwise.org

Preventing coffee wilt disease

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Kenya , September 2011 Preventing coffee wilt disease Recognize the problem Coffee wilt disease kills all types of coffee plants, of all ages. Coffee wilt disease starts as wilting, yellowing and curling of leaves on one side of the plant. Then that side of the plant loses leaves and the tree eventually dies. Seedling and young plants may die within a few months of infection. Remove a section of the bark " ngozi " on the lower stem near the ground. A diseased tree has a dark blue-black...

Published at: plantwise.org

Coffee black twig borer

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Uganda , 2010 Coffee Black Twig Borer Recognize the problem The coffee black twig borer is an insect pest which is causing a lot of damage in coffee in the Mukono District (Uganda), especially in the dry season. The adult coffee twig borer is a small (1 to 2 mm long) shiny black insect that is oval in shape. The beetle spends much of its life inside the coffee branch and is usually only seen when the branch is broken open. Background Female black twig borers tunnel into the current year's twigs,...

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Pest and Disease Photoguide to Papaya disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Papaya disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other showing...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Onion disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Onion disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other showing the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Mango disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Mango disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other showing the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Sorghum disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Sorghum disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Rice disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Rice disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other showing the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Groundnut disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Groundnut disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest and Disease Photoguide to Bean disorders

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KNOWLEDGE FOR LIFE Bean disorders CABI PEST AND DISEASE PHOTOGUIDE TOIntroduction This photo booklet has been produced by the CABI-led Plantwise programme (www.plantwise.org) to aid extension officers and other plant health advisors in diagnosing the most common pests, diseases and abiotic problems of coffee around the world. The symptoms presented on a real plant sample can be compared with the photos in this guide to identify possible causes. The booklet is organized into two broad sections, one showing the common insect pests that attack the crop and the other showing the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Knapsack spraying coffee

Published at: pesticidewise.com

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Names

Coffea in differrent languages.

Kohvipuu
Kofe
بن
கோப்பி
Kaffee
קפה
Kavovec
Καφεόδεντρο
Qəhvə ağacı
Arborele de cafea
Սրճենի
قهوه
Kofejowc
Кавове дерево
काफीसस्यम्
สกุลกาแฟ
Kafarbo
Kávovník
Caféyé
Kavamedis
Кафа
咖啡屬
Cafeeiro
Kava
Каһвә агачы
కాఫియా
커피나무속
Kaffeplanter
Caféier
قهوه آغاجی
Cafeeira
Кофе
Kávé
Кафейнае дрэва
Kafe-landare
കാപ്പി
Coffea
Koffieplant
Kawowiec
Kaffesläktet
Mbuni
Kaffe-slægten
Кафеено дърво
Кафе
Kahvipensaat
කෝපි
Kaffiplante
Chi Cà phê
कफीको बोट
コーヒーノキ
Кофе ағашы
Kaffee

Q&A

Coffea
Description

Erect, woody perennial herb or small shrub, up to 3 m tall, but usually around 1.5 m tall. Stems and leaves are covered with star-shaped (stellate) hairs, often many branched at the base. Leaves are simple, alternate, with the upper surface rough and the lower surface grayish, broadly ovate, often with 3-5 shallow, angular lobes at apex, up to 10 cm long, margins finely toothed, bases heart shaped, petioles up to 5 cm long, stipules tiny. Flowers are small, showy, hibiscus-like, solitary on short stalks in leaf axils, subtended by 5 basally united (involucral) bracts up to 0.7 cm, calyx 5-lobed, hairy, 5 petals, rose or pink, darker at the base, rounded, up to 1.5 cm long, stamens fused into an obvious pink column beneath a 5-lobed style. Fruits are small, barbed, spiny capsules, up to 1 cm across, with 5 prominent segments each containing 1 dark brown seed (Francis, 2000, Langeland et al., 2008, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Hosts

U. lobata is a severe weed in pastures, sugarcane fields, coffee plantations, rice plantations, and perennial crop plantations in many countries around the world (Henty and Pritchard, 1973;Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Martin and Pol, 2009;Randall, 2012). It is considered a weed in forest plantations in Bangladesh (Akter and Zuberi, 2009) and India (Chandra-Sekar, 2012). U. lobata is also classified as a noxious environmental weed because it has the potential to alter native plant communities by displacing and out-competing native species, changing community structures, and altering ecological functions (Austin, 1999;Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011;USDA-NRCS;2012).


Source: cabi.org
Description

P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.

Hosts

P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).

Source: cabi.org
Description

Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).

Recognition

Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).

Symptons

Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).

Impact

Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

Hosts

Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).


Source: cabi.org
Coffea Yellows
Description

Morinda citrifolia is a small tree or large evergreen shrub approximately 3Ð10 m in height at maturity and 15 cm or more in stem diameter. The plant sometimes finds support on other plants as a liana. The sapwood is soft and yellow-brown and the bark relatively smooth to slightly rough and grey or light brown. The light green, four-angled twigs have opposite, pinnately veined, glossy leaves attached by stout petioles, 1.5Ð2 cm long. Stipules are connate or distinct, 10Ð12 mm long, the apex entire or two- to three-lobed. The membranous, glabrous leaf blades range from elliptic to elliptic-ovate and range in size from 20 to 45 cm long and 7Ð25 cm wide. The tubular flowers are perfect, with about 75Ð90 in ovoid to globose heads. Peduncles are 10Ð30 mm long;the calyx a truncated rim. The corolla is white, five lobed, with the tube greenish white, 7Ð9 mm long and lobes oblong-deltate, approximately 7 mm long. There are five stamens, scarcely exserted and the style is about 15 mm long. Fruit (a syncarp) are yellowish white and fleshy, 5Ð14 cm long, about 3Ð7.5 cm in diameter, soft and fetid when ripe. Seeds are brown, about 4Ð9 mm long and have a distinct air chamber. The plant has a rooting habit similar to citrus and coffee, with an extensive lateral root system and a deep taproot (Janick and Paull, 2008).


Source: cabi.org