Melons (Cucumis melo)




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Use of protein bait for melon fly and fruit fly control


FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS Created in Sri Lanka , October 2013 Use of Protein Bait for Melon fly and Fruit fly control Recognize the problem Most fruits and vegetables are attacked by the fruit fly and melon fly which cause direct yield loss. Small whitish larvae (grubs) emerge from eggs laid on fruits. The larva bore into fruit and feed on flesh and subsequently causes fruit rotting. Background Protein is required by adult female flies for eggs to mature. Therefore, they are usually attracted towards protein food materials and...

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Red pumpkin beetle on vegetables


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Chemical control of downy mildew of cucurbits


FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS Created in Afghanistan , October 2012 Chemical control of Downy mildew of Cucurbits Recognize the problem Downy mildew is one of the most serious diseases in the Cucurbit family of crops. It causes yellow, angular spots to appear on the upper surface of leaves. The equivalent lower surface of these spots shows a purplish downy growth in moist weather. The spots turn necrotic with age, the diseased leaves become yellow and fall off, and the diseased plants are stunted and die. Fruits produced may not mature...

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Anthracnose of melon and its management


FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS Created in Vietnam , November 2012 Anthracnose of melon and its management Recognize the problem Anthracnose damage on melon fruits, leaves and stems is caused by a fungus. Initial symptoms on the leaves include spots with a pale yellow halo. Later, the spots turn brown and will be brittle and dry. Disease spots on the fruits are round and sunken with a yellowish colour. Infected stems show dark brown spots that will turn an ash-like colour in later stages. One of the typical symptoms observed is spots...

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Woodiness on passion fruit


FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS Created in Kenya , December 2012 Woodiness on Passion Fruit Recognize the problem This is one of the most dangerous sicknesses of the purple passion fruit. It makes the passion fruit woody and hard, hence the name "woodiness". The disease is visible on leaves as a light or dark green mosaic pattern often with light yellow discolouration. Infected fruits appear small and shapeless with hardy peel and small juice area. Sometimes the disease makes the affected fruit crack. Background Woodiness disease is...

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Angular leaf spot of cucurbits


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The Journal of Animal...

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Vegetable Diseases Caused by Soilborne Pathogens STEVEN T. KOIKE is Plant Pathology Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Monterey County; KRISHNA V. SUBBARAO is Plant Pathology Specialist, Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis; R. MICHAEL DAVIS is Plant Pathology Specialist, Department of Plant Pathology, UC Davis; and THOMAS A. TURINI is Plant Pathology Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Imperial County. Soilborne plant pathogens can significantly reduce yield and quality in vegetable crops. These pathogens are particularly challenging because...

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An illustrated version of this guideline is available online at Publication 3445 UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Cucurbits May 2016 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Cucurbits Year-Round IPM Program (Reviewed 10/11) ........................................................................................................................ iv General Information (Section reviewed 12/09...

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The opossum (Didelphis virginiana ) is the only native North American mar - supial. Marsupials are distinguished by their abdominal pouch used for carrying their young. The opossum is not native to California but was introduced in San Jose in 1910 from the east coast of the United States and has now become well estab - lished throughout much of the state. IDENTIFICATION An opossum is about the size of a house cat, has coarse grayish fur, a pointed face, and hairless, rounded ears (Figure 1). With its long hairless prehensile tail, the opossum can carry things such as nesting...

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Integrated Pest Management In and Around the Home R accoons Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2014 P EST N OTES Publication 74116 The adult raccoon ( Procyon lotor) is a stocky mammal about 2 to 3 feet long and weighs 7 to 30 pounds. It is dis - tinctively marked with a black “mask” over the eyes and is heavily furred with alternating light and dark rings around its tail (Figure 1). Raccoons are active year round but may take cover in dens during periods of severe winter weather. BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Raccoons prefer wooded areas near water and natural habitats...

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Integrated Pest Management In and Around the Home S kunkS Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program April 2015 P EST N OTES Publication 74118 Two species of skunk are found in California, the spotted skunk ( Spi - logale gracilis ) and the striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis ), which is the species most commonly found around homes (Figures 1 and 2). Although originally considered members of the weasel fam - ily, recent genetic research has placed skunks into their own family Mephi - tidae. Both skunk species produce an oily, yellow sulfur-alcohol...

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frangipani rust 243


Photo 1. Underside of leaf showing pustules of frangipani rust, Coleosporium plumeriae, liberating masses of spores. Photo 2. Close-up of frangipani rust, Coleosporium plumeriae, pustules liberating spores. Photo 3. Topside of frangipani leaf in Photo 2 to show greenish marks from rust infections of Coleosporium plumeriae showing through from the lower surface. Photo 4. Defoliation of frangipani caused by rust, Coleosporium plumeriae. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Frangipani rust (243)Frangipani rust (243) Common NameCommon...

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melon aphid 038


Photo 1 . A phid s o n t h e u nders id e o f a t a ro le af. Aphis g o ssy p ii is c o m mon o n t a ro . Photo 2 . C urly -to p s y m pto m o n b asil c a u se d b y la rg e n um bers o f a p hid s f e ed in g o n t h e unders id e o f y o ung le aves. Photo 3 . C ra zy a n ts t e n din g a p hid s f o r t h eir honeyd ew . T h e a n ts k eep p re d ato rs a n d para sit o id s a w ay a n d d efe n d t h e a p hid s f ro m th eir n atu ra l e n em ie s. W in ged a p hid s c a n b e se en in t h e lo w er p art o f t h e p hoto . Photo 4 . L ad yb ir d b eetle s f e ed...

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alert gas


“Giant African snail” is the common name used to describe several foreign snail species that could become serious agricultural pests in the United States. The most important giant African snail is Lissachatina fulica (formerly Achatina fulica ). The Giant African Snail Scientists consider L. fulica to be one of the most damaging land snails in the world. It is known to feed on at least 500 different types of plants, including peanuts, beans, peas, cucumbers, and melons. If fruits and vegetables are not available, they will eat a wide variety of ornamental plants...

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BP 142 W


P u r d u e e x t e n s i o n BP-142-W Gummy stem blight (also called black \fot) is one of the most se\fious folia\f diseases of muskmelon and \bate\fmelon in Indiana. Gummy stem blight causes lesions on stems and leaves. F\fuit is \fa\fely affected, but loss of foliage may affect yield and f\fuit quality. This publication desc\fibes the cycle and symptoms of gummy stem blight and offe\fs management \fecommendations. disease Cyc\fe and s ym\btoms The fungus that causes gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) favo\fs \ba\fm, \fainy \beathe\f. The fungus \fequi\fes \fain to dispe\fse,...

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French cassava A4 bw lowres


AFRICA SOIL HEALTH CONSORTIUM Corporate logo variations 24th Aug. 201201: Original version Version 02: Green: CMYK= 66, 0, 99, 0 Orange: CMYK= 5, 65, 100, 0 Version 03: Dark grey: CMYK= 0, 0, 0, 70 Light grey: CMYK= 0, 0, 0, 55 Version 04: Green: CMYK= 66, 0, 99, 0 Orange: CMYK= 35, 0, 64, 0 Guide de culture du manioc Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan et Utiang Ugbeiii ii Publié par le Consortium africain pour la santé des sols Publié par le Consortium africain pour la santé des sols Consortium africain pour la santé des...

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French Cassava A5 colour Lowres


Stefan Hauser, Lydia Wairegi, Charles L. A. Asadu, Damian O. Asawalam, Grace Jokthan et Utiang Ugbe Guide de culture du maniocii Consortium africain pour la santé des sols: Guide de culture du manioc Par Stefan Hauser (IITA), Lydia Wairegi (CABI), Charles L. A. Asadu (Université du Nigeria), Damian O. Asawalam (MOUAU, Nigeria), Grace Jokthan (Université ouverte nationale du Nigeria) et Utiang Ugbe (Development Input Limited, Nigeria) © CAB International 2014 Veuillez citer cette publication comme suit: Hauser, S. et al. (2014) Guide de culture du manioc. Consortium africain...

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Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions

Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions.jpg

The National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, AT T R A ( , was developed and is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT). The project is funded through a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture’s Rural Business- Cooperative Service. Visit the NCAT website ( sarc_current.php) for more information on our other sustainable agriculture and energy projects. 1-800-346-9140 � A project of the National Center for Appropriate Technology By Barbara C. Bellows,...

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01Tips on Scouting Garden Mums


Tips on Scouting Garden Mums Leanne Pundt UConn Extension An Equal Opportunity Employer and Program Provider Inspect Incoming Cuttings Insect and Mite Pests Scouting for Aphids • Look for wingless aphids on the young tender growth. • Green peach aphids, melon and chrysanthemum aphids may occur. • White, cast skins, shiny honeydew, sooty mold and the presence of ants are signs of aphids. Green Peach Aphid L. Pundt, UConn Light green aphid with cornicles slightly darker than body with black tips. Melon Aphids L. Pundt, UConn Light green, dark...

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Cucumis melo in differrent languages.

Cucumis microcarpus بطيخ


Cucumis melo



Eradicate weeds from field in the beginning of the crop at early stage
Destroy the debris of the crop after harvesting
Grow only recommended varieties e.g. melon 1, sugarbaby, Ravi, T-96, Black Chairman, Jaguar, Black happy
Avoid sowing alternate host plants of white fly, like cabbage,cotton and okra, near melon crop


Attack of insects can be seen on leaves, flowers and tender branches
Infected plants look dirty and opaque
Sticky material comes from the body of insects and black fungus appears on leaves
Adults are small whitish flying insects and young ones are yellow dot like non-motile insects present on the underside of the leaves
Take action when 5 adults, young or both are observed per leaf (ETL)


Promote the growth of beneficial insects (chrysoperla, ladybird beetle) by justifying the use of pesticides


Eggs;Eggs are pear shaped with a pedicel spike at the base, approximately 0.2 mm long.;Puparium;A flat, irregular oval shape, about 0.7 mm long, with an elongate, triangular vasiform orifice. On a smooth leaf the puparium lacks enlarged dorsal setae, but if the leaf is hairy, 2-8 long, dorsal setae are present.;Adult;Adults are approximately 1 mm long, the male slightly smaller than the female. The body and both pairs of wings are covered with a powdery, waxy secretion, white to slightly yellowish in colour.


Early indication of infestation may consist of chlorotic spots caused by larval feeding, which may also be disfigured by honeydew and associated sooty moulds. Leaf curling, yellowing, mosaics or yellow-veining may also indicate the presence of whitefly-transmitted viruses. These symptoms are also observed in B. tabaci infestations, however phytotoxic responses such as a severe silvering of courgette and melon leaves, mis-ripening of tomato fruits, stem whitening of brassicas and yellow veining of some solanaceous plants may also be seen (Costa et al., 1993, Secker et al., 1998).;The feeding of adults and nymphs causes chlorotic spots to appear on the surface of the leaves. Depending on the level of infestation, these spots may coalesce until the whole of the leaf is yellow, apart from the area immediately around the veins. Such leaves are later shed. The honeydew produced by the feeding of the nymphs covers the underside of leaves and can cause a reduction in photosynthetic potential when colonized by moulds. Honeydew can also disfigure flowers and, in cotton, can cause problems in lint processing. Following heavy infestations, plant height, the number of internodes, and yield quality and quantity can be affected, for example, in cotton.;Phytotoxic responses in many plant and crop species caused by larval feeding include severe silvering of courgette leaves, white stems in pumpkin, white streaking in leafy Brassica crops, uneven ripening of tomato fruits, reduced growth, yellowing and stem blanching in lettuce and kai choy (Brassica campestris) and yellow veining in carrots and honeysuckle (Lonicera) (Bedford et al., 1994a,b).;A close observation of leaf undersides will show tiny, yellow to white larval scales. In severe infestations, when the plant is shaken, numerous small and white adult whiteflies will emerge in a cloud and quickly resettle. These symptoms do not appreciably differ from those of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the glasshouse whitefly, which is common throughout Europe.

Host plant resistance

The development of transgenic resistant plant and crop species through genetic engineering must be considered and accepted as a future method of control where whitefly-transmitted viruses are already endemic and causing severe crop losses (Wilson, 1993, Raman and Altman, 1994). Traditional sources of resistance have been used successfully for the control of other whitefly species.


P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.


P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).