The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Cambodia, November 2014 Long Bean Pod Borer Recognize the problem Crops may be infested from early budding onwards. The eggs are laid on or in the flowers (inserted between the petals). Young larvae feed inside flowers for 5-7 days before moving to the pods when mid-sized. Favoured entry points are where flowers and pods are touching. After completing their development (10- 15 days from egg hatch), larvae exit pods and pupate in the soil. Occasionally the larvae indulge in vegetative feeding and have been observed tunnelling in the...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, December 2014 Herbicides against weeds in soybeans Recognize the problem Weeds compete with soybean for light, space, water and nutrients. Soybean plants are quickly overgrown. If weeds are not controlled on time, soybean yield will be very low. Background Most weeds can be controlled mechanically by pulling out, harrowing, or tillage. Some serious weeds can be chemically controlled. Be careful, some chemicals can only be sprayed before soybean germinates. Glyphosate kills any plant, also soybean. Thus, spray before sowing, or...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Zambia , August 2013 Cultural control of Diplodia cob rot in maize Recognize the problem Diplodia maize cob rot (also called ear rot) is a disease caused by a fungus. It causes rotting of the grains on the mature maize cob, reducing yield by up to 80%. The fungus turns the grains brown, and whitish threads can also be seen. Other cob rot diseases cause reddish, blackish or greyish grains and maize smut disease causes big deformed cob parts. Cob rot fungi can produce poisonous chemicals in the...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Rwanda , May 2012 Striga Recognize the problem Striga known as "Rwona" or "Kurisuka" in Kinyarwanda is a parasitic weed of different cereal species such as maize and sorghum, and grasses. Striga plants produce typical purple ('umwura' in Kinyarwanda) flowers while its leaves are narrow and long with an intense green colour. Background Striga seeds in the soil germinate only when host plants are growing which stimulate its germination; ootherwise, they remain dormant for up to 20 years. One...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Green Semilooper in Soybean Recognize the problem The semilooper larva is green in colour with several thin light lines running the length of the body. When crawling, it forms a characteristic loop or hump so is known as the semilooper. The full grown larva feeds on foliage, flowers and pods. In severe infestation, it defoliates the plant leaving behind only midribs. The female moth lays tiny white creamy eggs on the underside of the leaves or young stems. The eggs hatch 3-4...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Groundnut stem rot Recognize the problem Germinating seeds infected by groundnut stem rot are covered with masses of black spongy fungi. This causes rapid wilting of the entire plant or its branches. The development of white fungal threads can be seen on affected plant tissue, particularly on the stem. The base of the plant turns yellow and then wilts down. Mature plants may also be attacked. Lesions develop on the stem below the soil and spread upwards along the branches....
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Spodoptera in Soybean Recognize the problem Spodoptera larvae feed on the soybean crop and can cause considerable yield losses. Two black spots are present on the second segment of the larva. The female lays eggs in masses on the surface of the leaves and covers them with whitish hair scales. The egg stage lasts for 3 days. The newly emerged caterpillars feed on the lower surface of soybean leaves, skeletonising the lower surface of leaves, so that only the top epidermis is...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Cambodia , November 2012 (Revised August 2014) Black cutworm on leafy vegetables Recognize the problem Larvae (caterpillars) are gray or brown and reach 3-4 cm in length. They feed on leaves, making small holes. After few days, the caterpillars drop to the soil where they live until pupation. The larvae cut the stems of young seedlings at soil level, killing them. This affects the establishment of the crop. Adults have a wingspan of about 3.5-5 cm and are brownish in color with black slashes near...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Kenya , December 2012 Sawfly on Brassica Recognize the problem Sawfly is also known as the cabbage leaf sawfly or the turnip sawfly. The young (larvae) look like oily black or green coloured caterpillars. The larvae have a shiny head and their bodies have a swelling just behind the head that looks like a hump. The adults are wasps that are 1.5cm long with bright yellow abdomens. Background The sawfly is a threat to seedbeds where damage can be severe. The larvae feed on leaves and will...
Economic threshold ready reckoners Quick reference tables for key insect pests Economic thresholds are a key decision tool for growers and agronomists managing insect pests in their crops. Dynamic economic thresholds enable individual costs of control and grain prices to be included in the calculations to ensure the decision to treat or not to treat the pest infestation is as accurate as possible. These ready reckoners have been calculated for a range of pest densities, costs of control and grain prices. Where two ready reckoners are provided for a ...
‘Best Bet’ IPM strategy Summer pulse pests Pre‐plant Avoid paddocks in close proximity to other pest hosts (e.g. thrips moving from parthenium that transmit tobacco streak virus to mungbeans, or silverleaf whitefly moving from cucurbit and cotton crops into soybeans). Avoid paddocks previously planted to crops hosting soil‐borne pests such as cutworms or nematodes, and observe recommended plant back periods. Avoid sequential mungbean and soybean plantings to avoid a build‐up of key pests including podsucking bugs and whitefly. Seedling Scout regularly to detect ...
‘Best Bet’ IPM strategy Sunflower pests – Northern region Pre‐season and sowing Monitor prior to sowing for establishment pests:use germinating seed baits and/or soil sampling. Increased risk of establishment pests and seedling loss: history of establishment pests high levels of retained stubble or weedy fallow seedling emergence is slowed by cool, wet or dry conditions. Control broadleaf weeds in‐field and around crop margins to avoid build‐up of cutworm prior to seedling emergence. Controlling weeds (particularly parthenium in central Qld) will minimise the risk of Tobacco...
8/17 DOUG AND ANNA CRABTREE’S VILICUS FARM RESTS on more than 2,000 acres in northern Montana, and it is a model of how cover crops can be a foundation of pollinator and beneficial insect management. Like many farmers, their approach to cover cropping began with an interest in soil health and quickly grew to encompass much broader goals as they recognized the additional benefits cover crops could provide. “We want to implement pollinator conservation at the field-level scale,” Doug says. “Anyone can create a small wildflower strip, but as we scale up, we need conservation...
06/15 CONTENTS This bulletin is a companion to SARE’s Cover Crop Topic Room, an online collection of select, mostly SARE-based resources on cover crops. Information is available at www.SARE.org/Cover-Crops on the following topics: Selection and ManageMent econoMicS eStabliShMent no-till Soil and Fertility ManageMent Water ManageMent PeSt ManageMent croP rotationS MiScellaneouS SARE’s Topic Rooms contain dozens of publications, videos and other educational materials on a wide range of topics, including local food systems, high tunnels, small ruminants and more. Visit...
OVERVIEW | EXPORT DESTINATIONS | DOMESTIC MARKETS | HUMAN CONSUMPTION MARKETS | GRAIN SPECIFICATIONS | ON-FARM FACTORS INFLUENCING LUPIN DELIVERIES AND MARKETING WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 GRAIN MARKETS LUPIN1 grain markets Section 11 LUPIN July 2018 grain markets 11.1 Overview The bulk of Western Australia’s total annual production of narrow leafed lupin grain is exported, predominantly for use as animal feed, to key markets in the European Union, Japan and Korea. The remainder is retained on-farm for use as stock feed or planting seed, or traded to domestic buyers....
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Dolichos soja L.
D. bicornis is an annual, sometimes perennial grass. It is listed as invasive in North America (Mexico), Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), the Caribbean (Cuba), South America (Colombia, Ecuador) and Oceania (Nauru, USA-Hawaii) (Catasús Guerra, 2015;PIER, 2016). It is considered as a weed in cultivated fields (Quattrocchi, 2006;Dias et al., 2007;Duarte et al., 2009;Catasús Guerra, 2015;Ramírez S et al., 2015).
D. bicornis is a weed that occurs in maize, rice, soyabean and sugar cane fields (Quattrocchi, 2006;Dias et al., 2007;Ramírez S et al., 2015). Plants of maize and rice have been reported as being affected by downy mildew disease caused by Sclerophthora rayssiae that was acquired from soil where seedlings of D. bicornis were previously growing (Chamswarng et al., 1976).
From PROTA (2013)
E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiwan, though the situations in which it is causing problems are not well documented. It is recognized as a weed in soyabean, sugar cane and cotton in some countries and is presumably also threatening native flora in others.
E. hypericifolia is recorded as a weed in soyabean, sugarcane and cotton.
Herbaceous, twining or creeping vine, attaining up to 6 m in length. Stems cylindrical, glandular- pubescent. Leaves alternate, 5-palmately compound;leaflets 1.5-7.5 x 0.7-3.5 cm, elliptical, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the apex obtuse, the base acute or decurrent, the margins entire, undulate or dentate, glabrate or glandular-pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers in simple or double dichasial cymes;peduncles longer than the petioles;bracts persistent, linear to subulate;sepals subequal or unequal, 1-1.5 cm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, glandular-pubescent;corolla funnel-shaped, white or sometimes pink, with or without a purple centre, 1.5-3 cm x 3-4 cm;stamens 5, white, sometimes with lilac anthers;stigma bilobed, white. Fruit capsular, 4-valvate, globose, 6-8 mm in diameter, light brown, glabrous, surrounded by the persistent sepals. Seeds 4 per fruit, ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, dark brown, lanate (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005;Austin et al., 2012).
Merremia cissoides is a climbing weed native to tropical America that has been introduced to several Old World countries, presumably as an ornamental. It typically grows in disturbed areas and has been reported as a weed of several crops within its native range. However, it is not as widespread and common as other weedy species of Merremia. In several countries outside its native range, its occurrence has only been documented from one or few herbarium specimens. Nonetheless, the species is considered to be increasingly naturalized in the Old World tropics. It is invasive in Florida (USA) and Cuba.
The species has been reported as a weed of sugarcane fields in Brazil (Perim et al., 2009;Correia and Kronka Júnior, 2010) and has also been reported in maize (Tavella et al., 2015), soybean (Timossi and Durigan, 2006), eucalyptus (Carbonari et al., 2010) and coffee plantations (Gavilanes et al., 1988).
D. sissoo is a medium to large, deciduous, long-lived tree with a spreading crown and thick branches. It attains a height of up to 30 m and a girth of 2.4 m;the bole is often crooked. In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan, it also occurs in the form of a straggling bush at an altitude of 1500 m, clinging to crevices in the sides of sandstone cliffs (Troup, 1921). The bark is thick, rough and grey, and has shallow, broad, longitudinal fissures exfoliating in irregular woody strips and scales (Luna, 1996). D. sissoo develops a long taproot from an early age and has numerous lateral ramifying roots (Hocking, 1993). The leaves are compound, imparipinnate and alternate, with rachis 3.5-8 cm long, swollen at the base. There are 3-5 leaflets, each 3.5-9 x 3-7 cm;leaflets alternate, broadly ovate, conspicuously and abruptly cuspidate at the apex, rounded at the base, entire, coriaceous, pubescent when young and glabrous when mature. The terminal leaflet is larger than the others, and there are 8-12 pairs of veins in the leaflets (Parker, 1956;Luna, 1996). The inflorescence of D. sissoo is an axillary panicle 3.5-7.5 cm long, with small flowers, 7-9 mm long, white to yellowish-white with a pervasive fragrance, sessile, papilionaceous and hermaphrodite. The standard petal is narrow at the base and forms a low claw;wing and keel petals are oblong. Pods are 4.5-10 x 0.7-1.5 cm, linear-oblong, indehiscent, stipitate, glabrous, apex acute, reticulate against the seeds, and usually 1-4 seeded. Seeds are kidney-shaped, variable in size (8-10 x 4-5.5 mm), pale brown, brown to brownish-black, reniform, compressed, with papery testa (Parker, 1956;Singh, 1989;Luna, 1996).
D. ferox is an annual herb growing 50-150 cm tall. Stems are hairless or sparsely hairy with short and soft hairs, frequently branched and often purplish towards the base. Leaf shapes range from broadly ovate to rounded-triangular, 8-14 cm long and 6-16 cm wide;leaf margins are irregularly serrated or sinuate (with deep wavy margins). Flowers are white, often tinged with violet, 4-6 cm long, with five lobes, each lobe ending in a point of 1-2 mm length. Anthers are 3-4 mm long. Fruits are ellipsoid capsules up to 4 cm long. Each capsule bears up to 60 stout spines, the upper ones being longer than the lower ones. Seeds are black or grey and 4-5 mm long (George, 1982).
D. quercifolia can be distinguished from D. ferox by more purplish coloration in foliage;corolla and anthers, slightly downy versus glabrous;and spines somewhat less stout (Houmani et al., 1999).
D. ferox is a weed in summer crops, including maize, soybean, peanuts, grain sorghum, potato, sunflower and Cucurbitaceae (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001;Torres et al., 2013a,b).