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Sustainable Management of the Fall Armyworm in Africa


Sustainable Management of the Fall Armyworm in Africa FAO Programme for Action 6 October 2017 Executive Summary The invasive insect pest, Fall Armyworm, FAW (Spodoptera frugiperda) continues to spread across Africa, affecting millions of smallholder maize producers across the continent. In addition to its preferred maize, FAW can feed on more than 80 plant species, including rice, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, vegetable crops and cotton. FAW can cause significant yield losses if not well managed or in the absence of natural biological control. Unlike quarantine...

Published at: fao.org

Exotic pest alert: cotton boll weevil


Exotic Pest Alert: Cotton boll weevil April 2015 Primefact 1392 1st edition Plant Biosecurity...

Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Exotic pest alert: cotton leaf curl disease


Exotic Pest Alert: Cotton leaf curl disease May 2015 Primefact 1407 First edition Plant Biosecurity...

Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Cover Cropping for Pollinators and Beneficial Insects

Cover Cropping for Pollinators and Beneficial Insects.jpg

8/17 DOUG AND ANNA CRABTREE’S VILICUS FARM RESTS on more than 2,000 acres in northern Montana, and it is a model of how cover crops can be a foundation of pollinator and beneficial insect management. Like many farmers, their approach to cover cropping began with an interest in soil health and quickly grew to encompass much broader goals as they recognized the additional benefits cover crops could provide. “We want to implement pollinator conservation at the field-level scale,” Doug says. “Anyone can create a small wildflower strip, but as we scale up, we need conservation...

Published at: sare.org

GrowNote Wheat North 08 Nematodes


BACKGROUND | SYMPTOMS AND DETECTION | MANAGEMENT | VARIETAL RESISTANCE OR TOLERANCE | DAMAGE CAUSED BY NEMATODES | NEMATODES AND CROWN ROT NORTHERN SECTION 8 NEMATODE CONTROL FEBRUARY 2016 WHEAT A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 SECTION 8 WheAT - Nematode management 1Know more. Grow more. FeedbackTable of Contents 8 SECTION 8 Nematode management Root-lesion nematodes (RLN; Pratylenchus spp.) are microscopic, worm-like animals that extract nutrients from plants, causing yield loss. In the northern grains region, the...

Published at: grdc.com.au



Figure 1. Lateral dorsal and ventral views of Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel). Scale bar =1 mm Image © Fera Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) Background The Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an II/A1 EU listed quarantine pest of pasture grasses and cereals that is native to South America. It has since spread across the Pacific region and is most notably a pest in New Zealand having first been detected there in the late 1920’s. In early 2010 a number of dead adult specimens were detected in a grass seed...

Published at: planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk



The Farm Water Quality Plan Plan components compiled by MARY BIANCHI, UC Cooperative Extension Farm Advisor, San Luis Obispo County; DANIEL MOUNTJOY, Area Resource Conservationist, USDA–NRCS; and ALISON JONES, Watershed Management Initiative Coordinator, Central Coast Regional Quality Control Board. Use these sections to formalize a Farm Water Quality Plan for your farm. This is the Farm Water Quality Plan for _____________________________________________ Prepared by: ____________________________________________________________________ Date: _________________ CONTENTS Section page...

Published at: anrcatalog.ucanr.edu

maize asian corn borer 115

Photo 1. Caterpillar of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, inside a maize cob. The caterpillars are pinkish-brown. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Maize Asian corn borer (115)Maize Asian corn borer (115) Common NameCommon Name Asian corn borer Scientific NameScientific Name Ostrinia furnacalis DistributionDistribution Widespread. Asia, Europe, Oceania. It is recorded from Australia, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. HostsHosts Maize, including sweet corn, ginger and...

Published at: pestnet.org

cotton organic cultivation guide by naturland

II Special section: Organic Cotton Cultivation Naturland e.V. – 2 nd edition 2004 Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics Exemplary Description of 20 Crops Cotton © Naturland e.V. – 2 nd edition 2004II Special section: Organic Cotton Cultivation Naturland e.V. – 2 nd edition 2004 Acknowledgements The author (Saro G. Ratter) of this Update would li ke to thank the following persons who contributed information or comments. Mr. Louis Kapanda, Tanzania; Mr. Rajeev Baruah, Executive Director of Maikaal bioRe (India) ; Mr. Mahesh Ramakrishnan, Field Research Coordinator of Maikaal bioRe (...

Published at: infonet-biovision.org

Fact Sheet for Acacia angustissima


Plant Fact Sheet Plant Materials Plant Fact Sheet/Guide Coordination Page National Plant Data Center PRAIRIE ACACIA Acacia angustissima (P. Mill.) Kuntze Plant Symbol = ACAN Contributed by: USDA NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith Plant Materials Center Rudy G. Esquivel USDA NRCS James E. ‘Bud’ Smith PMC Alternate Names Fern acacia, white-ball acacia, Texas acacia, prairie guajillo Uses Erosion control: Prairie acacia may provide ground cover vegetation for critically eroding areas to...

Published at: plants.usda.gov

3. Production and postharvest activities for sesame


A H A N D B O O K F O R F A R M E R S A N D I N V E S T O R S 361 Sesame seed Mal Bennett However, before sesame can realise its potential, extensive research is needed to adapt the crop to mechanical agricultural systems. Furthermore, as Australia is becoming more involved with Asian regional activities, where much of the world’s sesame is grown, Australia’s own agricultural self- interest could be combined with its international extension and aid programs by taking the lead in a regional sesame research and development project. Markets and marketing issues In 1993, the world trade...

Published at: agmrc.org

5. Production and postharvest activities for sesame


FARMER’S GUIDE FOR THE FRODUCTION AND POST-HARVEST HANDLING OF SESAME PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA STDF Project 172 co-financed by NEPC and STDF, implemented by NEPC and supervised by ITC 2014 TRAINING MANUAL EXPANDING EXPORT OF SESAME SEED AND SHEANUT/BUTTER THROUGH IMPROVED SPS CAPACITY BUILDING FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS Bruno DOKO, International Consultant, ITC, STDF Project 172 Samson ENWERE, NSSAN, Nigeria 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Authors are thankful to all contributors of the preparation of this manual. Particularly, they expressed their warmest...

Published at: standardsfacility.org

8. Production and postharvest activities for sesame


SESAME GROWER GUIDE D. Ray Langham, Jerry Riney, Glenn Smith, and Terry Wiemers March 2008 www.sesaco.net Sesame Grower Guide 1 © 2008 Sesaco Corporation QUICK FACTS Reasons to Grow Sesame More profitable with limited resources than other crops using the same resources. Offers more return for less cost (less risk) than other crops. Sesame is very drought and insect resistant. Sesame suppresses the root-...

Published at: baylor.agrilife.org

30. Production and postharvest activities for fonio


AgriGuide E-TIC E-TIC Sahel InfoHubs Senegal and Mali Initiative de Avec le soutien de ICVolunteers AgriGuide: Best Practices for Organic Farming, 29 July 2012 ________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2012 ICVolunteers Compilation and writing: Sigfrido Romero, Viola Krebs, Namory Diakhaté Editing: Diego Beamonte, Viola Krebs, Camille Saadé, Lana Melle, Shindouk Mohammed Lamine French translation: Cindy Bellemin-Magninot English translation: Kate O' Dwyler, Amy Louise Viana Lima Illustrations: Matilde de Fuentes de Medem, Abdou Kane Ndaw,...

Published at: agriguide.org

59. Using permanent soil cover in conservation agriculture


I n t e g r a t e d C r o p M a n a g e m e n t Vol. 12– 201012 Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation Agriculture on small farms Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation Agriculture on small farms G reen m anure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation A griculture on sm all farm s FA O Green manure/cover crops and crop rotation in Conservation Agriculture on small farms The objective of this publication is to offer a reference material for extensionists, professors, agronomy students, technicians in...

Published at: fao.org

66. Preserving wild food plants ensures a better future for all


Hibiscus sabdariffa Malvaceae L. Detail of flowers and leaves. (Morton J.) Harvested calyses. (Armstrong W.P.) LOCAL NAMES English (white sorrel,rozelle,roselle,red sorrel,jamaica); Malay (asam susur); Thai (kachieb priew) BOTANIC DESCRIPTION Hibiscus sabdariffa is an erect, mostly branched, annual shrub. Stem reddish in colour and up to 3.5 m tall, with a deep penetrating taproot. Leaves variously colored, dark green to red; leaves alternate, glabrous, long-petiolate, palmately divided into 3-7 lobes, with serrate margins. Flowers large, short-peduncled, red to yellow with dark...

Published at: worldagroforestry.org

Insect Pests of Bamboos in Asia (Part 2)

INBAR_Technical_Report_No13_02..PDF32 Eggs, which are laid in clusters on the back surface of leaves in the upper crown, take about a week to hatch. Larvae remain in leaf cases for 11 months, feeding in groups at the first two instars and individually thereafter. The third instar larvae diapause in leaf cases during summer and winter months and become active in early March (Xu Tiansen 1989, 1992a; Nakahara and Kobayashi 1963). ? Crocidophora ptyophora Hampson The adult moth of this minor pest has bright yellow wings with broad purplish marginal bands. The larva rolls up green leaves with...

Published at: inbar.int

Insect Pests of Bamboos in Asia (Part 4)

INBAR_Technical_Report_No13_04..PDF133 This is a polyphagous species and a common pest of packing cases, plywood chests and other wood-based industrial products. It is a minor pest of dry bamboos. The adult beetle is black, 6-15 mm long, cylindrical and with a rough hooded prothorax, usually with curved hooks at the distal ends of elytra. Female adult lays eggs singly on rough surfaces of dry bamboos. The larvae, after hatching, bore into the soft portion and gradually make a wide tunnel. The tunnels are tightly packed with fine wood dust and the host bamboo is soon reduced to powder. The...

Published at: inbar.int

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Gossypium hirsutum in differrent languages.

Хлопчатник обыкновенный
Бавовник звичайний
Behaarde katoen
پنبه الیاف کوتاه اتازونی
Gossypium hirsutum
Bawełna kosmata
میکسیکی کپآ
Adi pambıq kolu
Adi pambıq kolu


Gossypium hirsutum Merremia aegyptia Long

Herbaceous, twining or creeping vine, attaining 3 m or more in length. Stems cylindrical, usually reddish, with long, erect, yellowish, non-glandular hairs. Leaves alternate, 5-palmately compound;leaflets 4-14 x 2-6 cm, oblanceolate or elliptical, the apex and base acuminate, the margins entire and ciliate, hispidulous to glabrate on both surfaces. Flowers in dichasial cymes;peduncles shorter than the petioles, hairy;bracts deciduous;sepals subequal or unequal, 1.5-2 cm long, with long, yellowish hairs;corolla funnel-shaped, white, 2.5-3 cm x 4-4.5 cm;five stamens, white;stigma bilobed, white. Fruit capsular, 4-valvate, subglobose, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, light brown, glabrous, surrounded by the persistent sepals. Four seeds per fruit, obtusely triangular, 5-6 mm long, brown, glabrous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005;Austin et al., 2012).


M. aegyptia can be easily recognized in the field by the 5-digitate leaves with entire leaflets, and the long, erect hairs covering the stems and calyx.


Merremia aegyptia is an annual climbing herb that acts as a pioneer species in disturbed sites in tropical regions. It is considered a weed in most countries where it occurs and it has been included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012). The species is native to tropical America and Africa and listed as invasive in Cuba, India, Australia and Hawaii.


M. aegyptia is a relatively common weed in sugarcane (Brazil, Lesser Antilles, Reunion) and maize fields (Guatemala, Brazil, Nigeria), where it climbs up plants, bending and entangling their stems (Standley and Williams, 1970;Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Lima e Silva et al., 2004;Valery, 2006;Chikoye et al., 2009;Correia et al., 2010;Correia, 2016). It has also been reported in cotton (Cardoso et al., 2010), banana (Isaac et al., 2009), rice (Ismaila et al., 2015), green pepper (Coelho et al., 2013), muskmelon (Teófilo et al., 2012), yam (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991) and coffee plantations (Gavilanes et al., 1988).

Source: cabi.org

From PROTA (2013)


E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiwan, though the situations in which it is causing problems are not well documented. It is recognized as a weed in soyabean, sugar cane and cotton in some countries and is presumably also threatening native flora in others.


E. hypericifolia is recorded as a weed in soyabean, sugarcane and cotton.

Source: cabi.org
Gossypium hirsutum Hyoscyamus niger Long, Monitoring

The entire plant is sticky, hairy and odorous (Mitich, 1992), with coarsely toothed or pinnatifid leaves that may be long petiolate or sessile and decurrent (Hocking, 1947;Williams, 1960). Depending on growing conditions and variety, the plant averages between 0.75 and 1.5m tall. The annual variety may be early or late flowering and germinates, blooms and dies during a single season. In the biennial variety, a tuber derived from the hypocotyl and the upper portion of the root (Lang, 1986) develops in the first year, giving the entire root the resemblance of a parsnip root. Sessile, yellowish-brown and purple-veined campanulate flowers are borne in several indeterminate scorpoid cymes (Halevy, 1986). The fruit, a pyxis (urn-shaped capsule with a lid-like top), dehisces to release hundreds of black/grey seeds (Hocking, 1947;Whitson et al., 2000). For further detailed descriptions of H. niger, see also Gibson (1964) and LaFantasie (2008).


In the field, H. niger has a distinctive shape upon flowering, and developing a search image would not take much time. Surveying fields and monitoring points of entry would benefit from the use of photos, descriptions and keys, including Weeds of the West (Whitson et al., 2000), Flora of the Northeast (Magee and Ahles, 1999) and Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). An excellent description of seed characteristics can be found in Shahid Farooq and Khan (1996);however, seed size (1.5 mm long) may make detection difficult.


Hyoscyamus niger, an annual or biennial herb growing up to 1.5 m tall, is thought to have been native originally to a broad region of Eurasia. It is naturalized in many regions globally and is a noxious weed in much of North America. H. niger is cultivated as a medicinal plant in many countries, and risk of introduction is likely to be associated with commercial seed or as a seed contaminant. Once established, H. niger is capable of producing thousands of highly viable seeds per plant. However, its competitive ability appears to be limited to disturbed and cultivated areas.


The presence of H. niger in hay affects hay quality. It is a weed of several crops, including wheat, millet and cotton (AgroAtlas, 2015), and of pastures.

Source: cabi.org
Gossypium hirsutum Verbena rigida Long

V. rigida grows as an herbaceous perennial plant 50-60 cm in height (ISSG, 2015). It can form dense stands via rhizomes and stolons (Munir, 2002). Leaves are arranged opposite to subopposite along the square stems and leaves clasp the stem (Tveten and Tveten, 2010;ISSG, 2015). The stiff, dark green leaves are oblong in shape, 5-10 cm long, with pointed tips and coarsely serrated edges (ISSG, 2015). Leaves and stems are covered in rough hairs (Tveten and Tveten, 2010). Cylindrical spikes of flowers forming spreading clusters are held at the ends of stems. Each flower calyx is 3-3.5 mm long and the corolla-tube is 5-10(-12) mm long (ISSG, 2015). Flowers are purple in colour and fragrant. Dry fruits separate into four, one-seeded parts. Each seed is about 2 mm long (ISSG, 2015).


V. rigida is an herbaceous perennial planted as a fast spreading groundcover (Royal Horticultural Society, 2015) and is listed as weedy in many countries (Randall, 2012). It is principally found in disturbed areas but can spread into grasslands and forests and is a weed of cotton fields (ISSG, 2015). However, there is little information on the species impact in agricultural or natural ecosystems. It spreads via rhizomes and seeds (ISSG, 2015), but the extent of dispersal by seed and whether the plant has a seedbank is unknown.


V. rigida is a weed in pastures and cotton fields (Munir, 2002) and turf grass (Georgia Turf, 2015) but appears to be a relatively minor weed. Where a weed of cotton fields in Australia (Johnson and Hazlewood, 2002) no information was available on the magnitude of effect or what crop stage is affected. It is considered a weed in cultivation of bald cypress in Florida (Osiecka and Minogue, 2012).

Source: cabi.org