P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
SYMPTOMS AND DETECTION | VARIETAL RESISTANCE OR TOLERANCE | MANAGEMENT OF NEMATODES | TESTING FOR ROOT-LESION NEMATODES WESTERN SEPTEMBER 2018 SECTION 8 NEMATODE MANAGEMENT BARLEY 1 NEMAtoDE MANAgEMENt seCtIon 8 BARLEY WESTERN JUNE 2017 Nematode management Root-lesion nemtodes (RLN; Pratylenchus spp.) are microscopic, worm-like animals that extract nutrients from plants, causing yield loss. 1 Root-lesion nematodes are found over 5.74 million hectares (or ~65%) of the cropping area of WA and populations potentially limit yield in at least 40% of these infested paddocks...
CROP OVERVIEW | PRODUCTS AND USES | MARKET | FABA BEAN RESEARCH WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION A INTRODUCTION FABA BEANxiv INtRODUCtION IntroduCtIon FABA BEANS NOVEMBER 2017 Introduction A.1 Crop overview A.1.1 the role of pulses in farming systems In WA, faba beans is a niche crop and production currently stands at around 6,000 tonnes (DAFWA). Vicia faba minor is grown under broadscale farming conditions in WA. In modern farming systems pulses have a role that is far greater than the traditional ones of ‘nitrogen fixation’ and ‘disease break’. They can be a cash crop in their...
FUNGAL DISEASE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES | SYMPTOM SORTER | CHOCOLATE SPOT | ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT | SCLEROTINIA STEM ROT | BOTRYTIS GREY MOULD | ROOT ROTS | RUST | RHIZOCTONIA BARE PATCH | VIRUSES | SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR DISEASED PLANT SPECIMENS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 9 DISEASES FABA BEAN 1 DISEASES seCtIon 9 FABA BEANS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 Diseases Key messages • Chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) can cause extensive losses and is the major disease of faba beans in WA. • In central and southern areas of WA use varieties that are at least moderately...
TEMPERATURE | FROST | WATERLOGGING AND FLOODING | DROUGHT WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 14 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FABA BEAN 1 ENVIRONMENtAl ISSUES seCtIon 14 FABA BEANS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 Environmental issues Key messages • Frost damage is not always obvious and crops should be checked 5–7 days after a suspected frost. • Faba beans have a medium tolerance to frost due to their thick pod walls. • Faba beans are the pulse most tolerant to waterlogging. • Disease resistance is especially important in drought-prone areas. 14.1 temperature Temperature, daylight, day length...
FABA BEAN TYPES | CHOOSING A VARIETY | FABA BEAN VARIETIES | SEED QUALITY | HANDLING BULK SEED | SEED TESTING WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 2 PRE-PLANTING FABA BEAN1 PRE-PlANtINg seCtIon 2 FABA BEANS NOVEMBER 2017 Pre-planting Key messages • Faba beans have large flat seeds, which are predominantly a beige or buff colour. • Colour, size, shape and texture are important attributes in the marketability of faba beans. • Faba beans prefer well-drained loam to clay soils with a pH in the range of 5.4–8.0. • When choosing varieties, consider their susceptibility to chocolate spot, Ascochyta and...
LENTIL TYPES | SELECTION OF VARIETIES | RED LENTIL VARIETIES | GREEN LENTIL VARIETIES | SEED | PBR AND ROYALTIES WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 3 PRE-PLANTING LENTIL1 pre-planting Section 3 LentiL June 2018 pre-planting • lentil varieties differ physiologically by seed size, seed coat colour, kernel (cotyledon), colour and time to maturity. • red lentil is split or de-hulled for human consumption. • Contamination of ‘off-type’ lentil varieties can lead to marketing concerns. • green lentil is predominantly used whole for cooking. • Seed coat colour can be influenced by...
ROLLING LENTILS WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 POST PLANTING LENTIL1 post-planting Section 5 LentiL June 2018 post-planting • Rolling lentil improves harvest efficiency and minimises soil contamination at delivery. • Rolling lentil can help protect the crop from post-sowing herbicide damage. • a flat, firm soil surface at harvest becomes even more essential when cro\ ps are short in height at maturity due to low rainfall. • the optimum timing for post-emergent rolling is when most of the crop is close to the top of the furrow, 3–5-leaf growth stage. - 2...
KEY POINTS | ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS FOR PLANTS | CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DIAGNOSING NUTRIENT DISORDERS | SOIL AND PLANT TISSUE TESTING | NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS OF LENTIL | NITROGEN (N) | PHOSPHORUS (P) | POTASSIUM (K | CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND SULFUR | BORON | COPPER (CU) | IRON (FE) | MANGANESE (MN) | MOLYBDENUM (MO) | ZINC (ZN) | LIME | SOIL PH AND TOXICITIES | DETERMINING FERTILISER REQUIREMENTS | NUTRIENT BUDGETING | KEYS FOR SUCCESSFUL UPTAKE OF NUTRIENTS BY LENTIL WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 7 NUTRITION AND FERTILISER LENTIL1 nutrition and...
WESTERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS LENTILv June 2018 Contents Contents LentiL 1 Introduction Key points........................................................................\ ........................................................ 1 Keys to successful lentil production ........................................................................\ ......... 2 1.1 The role of pulses in the farming system ............................................................... 3 1.2 Why grow lentil...
TIME OF SEEDING | SEEDING RATE / TARGET POPULATION | SEEDING DEPTH | ROW SPACING | DRY SEEDING | HERBICIDE RESIDUES | SAFE RATES OF FERTILISER SOWN WITH THE SEED | MACHINERY FOR SEEDING | INOCULATION | IRRIGATION WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 4 PLANTING LENTIL 1 planting Section 4 LentiL GROWNOTES WESTERN June 2018 planting • Seeding date with lentil needs to consider the location (district) and the variety. • ideal seeding time is a compromise between early seeding (to increase yield) and delayed seeding (to reduce yield loss factors such as heat and frost...
WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 9 PEST MANAGEMENT LENTIL KEY POINTS | INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) | IDENTIFYING PESTS | KEY PESTS OF LENTIL | OTHER PESTS OF LENTIL | OCCASIONAL PESTS OF LENTIL | EXOTIC LENTIL INSECTS – BIOSECURITY THREATS | BENEFICIAL SPECIES | COMMONLY USED REGISTERED INSECTICIDES1 pest management Section 9 LentiL June 2018 pest management Key points • the key pests of lentil in southern a ustralia are Helicoverpa punctigera (native budworm), etiella, snails, slugs, aphids, redlegged earth mite\ s and lucerne flea. • Integrated pest...
KEY POINTS | DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING | SWATHING WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 PRE-HARVEST TREATMENTS LENTIL1 pre-harvest treatments Section 11 LentiL June 2018 pre-harvest treatments Key points • Crop-topping is a form of desiccation, and is common practice in lentil.\ • timing of crop-topping is based on weed stages of development to prevent \ weed seedset. • Crop desiccation is used to aid in uniform ripening of the crop and to k\ ill • green weeds for harvest. • Desiccation enables an earlier harvest. • Do not use glyphosate to desiccate lentil crops if the seed...
BENEFITS OF DESICCATION | CROP-TOP, DESICCATE, HARVEST OR MANURE? | TIMING OF DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING SOUTHERN SEPTEMBER 2018 SECTION 11 CROP DESICCATION/ SPRAY OUT CHICKPEA1 CRoP DeSICCATIon/SPRAY oUT seCtIon 11 CHICKPEA JULY 2017 Crop desiccation/spray out Key messages • Chickpea often matures unevenly and require herbicides to ripen more evenly. • Desiccation assists production by: taking out late weeds such as thistles which can stain the seed, allowing for earlier harvesting which lessens the weather risk at harvest and browning out green stems which can gum up...
KEY POINTS | ABIOTIC STRESS | IMPROVING THE FARM RESOURCE BASE | SOIL EROSION | WATER | NUTRIENTS | BIOLOGY SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 14 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FABA BEAN1 environmental issues Section 14 faba bean June 2018 environmental issues Key points • important environmental issues include: soil erosion management, responsible pesticide stewardship and biosecurity. • other issues include water use, managing nutrient losses, rhizobium activity with changed atmosphere, and integrated management of pests, weeds and diseases. 2...
KEY POINTS | FIELD PEA TYPE AND PHYSIOLOGY | FIELD PEA GROWTH STAGES | GERMINATION AND EMERGENCE | NODULATION AND NODULATION FAILURE | ABIOTIC STRESSES (ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS) ON PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY | CROP LODGING | REDUCED SHATTERING | NATIONAL FIELD PEA BREEDING OBJECTIVES SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY FIELD PEA1 plant growth and physiology Section 5 field pea June 2018 plant growth and physiology Key points • Field pea varieties range in growth habit from trailing, leafy types to being semi-leafless and so erect at...
KEY POINTS | STORING PULSES | CONDITION OF THE SEED AT HARVEST | HANDLING FIELD PEA | GRAIN CLEANING | ON-FARM STORAGE | GRAIN QUALITY IN STORAGE | MOISTURE CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE | COOLING AND DRYING PULSES | PREVENTING MOISTURE MIGRATION | GRAIN BAGS FOR PULSE STORAGE | GRAIN STORAGE: GET THE ECONOMICS RIGHT | INSECT PESTS IN STORAGE | FARM AND GRAIN HYGIENE | FUMIGATION IN SEALED SILOS | ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS FOR PULSES | SEALING SILOS SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 12 STORAGE FIELD PEA 1 storage Section 12 field pea GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June...
KEY POINTS | DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING | WINDROWING SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 PRE-HARVEST TREATMENTS LENTIL1 pre-harvest treatments Section 11 LentiL June 2018 pre-harvest treatments Key points • Crop-topping is a form of desiccation, and is common practice in lentil.\ • timing of crop-topping is based on the weed stages of development to prevent weed seedset. • Crop desiccation is used to aid in uniform ripening of the crop and to k\ ill green weeds for harvest. • Desiccation enables an earlier harvest. • Do not use glyphosate to desiccate lentil crops if the...
KEY POINTS | ROLLING LENTIL SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 POST PLANTING LENTIL 1 post planting Section 5 LentiL GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June 2018 post planting Key points • Rolling lentil improves harvest efficiency and minimises soil contamination at delivery. • Rolling lentil helps protect the crop from post-sowing herbicide damage. • a flat, firm soil surface at harvest becomes even more essential when crops are short in height at maturity due to low rainfall. • the optimum timing for post-emergent rolling is when most of the crop is close to the top of the furrow: 3–5-...
KEY POINTS | LENTIL TYPES | SELECTION OF VARIETIES | RED LENTIL VARIETIES | GREEN LENTIL VARIETIES | SEED | PBR AND ROYALTIES SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 3 PRE-PLANTING LENTIL 1 pre-planting Section 3 LentiL GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June 2018 pre-planting Key points • lentil varieties differ physiologically by seed size, seed coat colour, kernel (cotyledon), colour and time to maturity. • red lentil is split or de-hulled for human consumption. • Contamination of ‘off-type’ lentil varieties can lead to marketing concerns. • green lentil is predominantly used whole for...
SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS LENTILv June 2018 Contents Contents LentiL 1 Introduction Key points........................................................................\ ........................................................ 1 Keys to successful lentil production ........................................................................\ ......... 2 1.1 The role of pulses in the farming system ............................................................... 3 1.2 Why grow lentil...
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Caxtillān pitzāhuac etl
P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.