Lentils (Lens culinaris)

Description

 

Resources

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GrowNote Barley West 8 Nematodes

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SYMPTOMS AND DETECTION | VARIETAL RESISTANCE OR TOLERANCE | MANAGEMENT OF NEMATODES | TESTING FOR ROOT-LESION NEMATODES WESTERN SEPTEMBER 2018 SECTION 8 NEMATODE MANAGEMENT BARLEY 1 NEMAtoDE MANAgEMENt seCtIon 8 BARLEY WESTERN JUNE 2017 Nematode management Root-lesion nemtodes (RLN; Pratylenchus spp.) are microscopic, worm-like animals that extract nutrients from plants, causing yield loss. 1 Root-lesion nematodes are found over 5.74 million hectares (or ~65%) of the cropping area of WA and populations potentially limit yield in at least 40% of these infested paddocks...

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GrowNote Faba Bean West 0 Introduction

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CROP OVERVIEW | PRODUCTS AND USES | MARKET | FABA BEAN RESEARCH WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION A INTRODUCTION FABA BEANxiv INtRODUCtION IntroduCtIon FABA BEANS NOVEMBER 2017 Introduction A.1 Crop overview A.1.1 the role of pulses in farming systems In WA, faba beans is a niche crop and production currently stands at around 6,000 tonnes (DAFWA). Vicia faba minor is grown under broadscale farming conditions in WA. In modern farming systems pulses have a role that is far greater than the traditional ones of ‘nitrogen fixation’ and ‘disease break’. They can be a cash crop in their...

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GrowNote Faba Bean West 9 Diseases

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FUNGAL DISEASE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES | SYMPTOM SORTER | CHOCOLATE SPOT | ASCOCHYTA BLIGHT | SCLEROTINIA STEM ROT | BOTRYTIS GREY MOULD | ROOT ROTS | RUST | RHIZOCTONIA BARE PATCH | VIRUSES | SAMPLE PREPARATION FOR DISEASED PLANT SPECIMENS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 9 DISEASES FABA BEAN 1 DISEASES seCtIon 9 FABA BEANS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 Diseases Key messages • Chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) can cause extensive losses and is the major disease of faba beans in WA. • In central and southern areas of WA use varieties that are at least moderately...

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GrowNote Faba Bean West 14 Environment

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TEMPERATURE | FROST | WATERLOGGING AND FLOODING | DROUGHT WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 14 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FABA BEAN 1 ENVIRONMENtAl ISSUES seCtIon 14 FABA BEANS WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 Environmental issues Key messages • Frost damage is not always obvious and crops should be checked 5–7 days after a suspected frost. • Faba beans have a medium tolerance to frost due to their thick pod walls. • Faba beans are the pulse most tolerant to waterlogging. • Disease resistance is especially important in drought-prone areas. 14.1 temperature Temperature, daylight, day length...

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GrowNote Faba Bean West 2 Pre planting

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FABA BEAN TYPES | CHOOSING A VARIETY | FABA BEAN VARIETIES | SEED QUALITY | HANDLING BULK SEED | SEED TESTING WESTERN NOVEMBER 2017 SECTION 2 PRE-PLANTING FABA BEAN1 PRE-PlANtINg seCtIon 2 FABA BEANS NOVEMBER 2017 Pre-planting Key messages • Faba beans have large flat seeds, which are predominantly a beige or buff colour. • Colour, size, shape and texture are important attributes in the marketability of faba beans. • Faba beans prefer well-drained loam to clay soils with a pH in the range of 5.4–8.0. • When choosing varieties, consider their susceptibility to chocolate spot, Ascochyta and...

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GrowNote Lentil West 3 Pre planting

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LENTIL TYPES | SELECTION OF VARIETIES | RED LENTIL VARIETIES | GREEN LENTIL VARIETIES | SEED | PBR AND ROYALTIES WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 3 PRE-PLANTING LENTIL1 pre-planting Section 3 LentiL June 2018 pre-planting • lentil varieties differ physiologically by seed size, seed coat colour, kernel (cotyledon), colour and time to maturity. • red lentil is split or de-hulled for human consumption. • Contamination of ‘off-type’ lentil varieties can lead to marketing concerns. • green lentil is predominantly used whole for cooking. • Seed coat colour can be influenced by...

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GrowNote Lentil West 5 Post Planting

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ROLLING LENTILS WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 POST PLANTING LENTIL1 post-planting Section 5 LentiL June 2018 post-planting • Rolling lentil improves harvest efficiency and minimises soil contamination at delivery. • Rolling lentil can help protect the crop from post-sowing herbicide damage. • a flat, firm soil surface at harvest becomes even more essential when cro\ ps are short in height at maturity due to low rainfall. • the optimum timing for post-emergent rolling is when most of the crop is close to the top of the furrow, 3–5-leaf growth stage. -   2...

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GrowNote Lentil West 7 Nutrition Fertiliser

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KEY POINTS | ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS FOR PLANTS | CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DIAGNOSING NUTRIENT DISORDERS | SOIL AND PLANT TISSUE TESTING | NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS OF LENTIL | NITROGEN (N) | PHOSPHORUS (P) | POTASSIUM (K | CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND SULFUR | BORON | COPPER (CU) | IRON (FE) | MANGANESE (MN) | MOLYBDENUM (MO) | ZINC (ZN) | LIME | SOIL PH AND TOXICITIES | DETERMINING FERTILISER REQUIREMENTS | NUTRIENT BUDGETING | KEYS FOR SUCCESSFUL UPTAKE OF NUTRIENTS BY LENTIL WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 7 NUTRITION AND FERTILISER LENTIL1 nutrition and...

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GrowNote Lentil West 0 Contents

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WESTERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS LENTILv June 2018 Contents Contents LentiL 1 Introduction Key points........................................................................\ ........................................................ 1 Keys to successful lentil production ........................................................................\ ......... 2 1.1 The role of pulses in the farming system ............................................................... 3 1.2 Why grow lentil...

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GrowNote Lentil West 4 Planting

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TIME OF SEEDING | SEEDING RATE / TARGET POPULATION | SEEDING DEPTH | ROW SPACING | DRY SEEDING | HERBICIDE RESIDUES | SAFE RATES OF FERTILISER SOWN WITH THE SEED | MACHINERY FOR SEEDING | INOCULATION | IRRIGATION WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 4 PLANTING LENTIL 1 planting Section 4 LentiL GROWNOTES WESTERN June 2018 planting • Seeding date with lentil needs to consider the location (district) and the variety. • ideal seeding time is a compromise between early seeding (to increase yield) and delayed seeding (to reduce yield loss factors such as heat and frost...

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GrowNote Lentil West 9 Pest Management

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WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 9 PEST MANAGEMENT LENTIL KEY POINTS | INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) | IDENTIFYING PESTS | KEY PESTS OF LENTIL | OTHER PESTS OF LENTIL | OCCASIONAL PESTS OF LENTIL | EXOTIC LENTIL INSECTS – BIOSECURITY THREATS | BENEFICIAL SPECIES | COMMONLY USED REGISTERED INSECTICIDES1 pest management Section 9 LentiL June 2018 pest management Key points • the key pests of lentil in southern a ustralia are Helicoverpa punctigera (native budworm), etiella, snails, slugs, aphids, redlegged earth mite\ s and lucerne flea. • Integrated pest...

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GrowNote Lentil West 11 Pre Harvest Treatments

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KEY POINTS | DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING | SWATHING WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 PRE-HARVEST TREATMENTS LENTIL1 pre-harvest treatments Section 11 LentiL June 2018 pre-harvest treatments Key points • Crop-topping is a form of desiccation, and is common practice in lentil.\ • timing of crop-topping is based on weed stages of development to prevent \ weed seedset. • Crop desiccation is used to aid in uniform ripening of the crop and to k\ ill • green weeds for harvest. • Desiccation enables an earlier harvest. • Do not use glyphosate to desiccate lentil crops if the seed...

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GrowNote Chickpea South 11 Desiccation

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BENEFITS OF DESICCATION | CROP-TOP, DESICCATE, HARVEST OR MANURE? | TIMING OF DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING SOUTHERN SEPTEMBER 2018 SECTION 11 CROP DESICCATION/ SPRAY OUT CHICKPEA1 CRoP DeSICCATIon/SPRAY oUT seCtIon 11 CHICKPEA JULY 2017 Crop desiccation/spray out Key messages • Chickpea often matures unevenly and require herbicides to ripen more evenly. • Desiccation assists production by: taking out late weeds such as thistles which can stain the seed, allowing for earlier harvesting which lessens the weather risk at harvest and browning out green stems which can gum up...

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GrowNote Faba South 14 Environmental Issues

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KEY POINTS | ABIOTIC STRESS | IMPROVING THE FARM RESOURCE BASE | SOIL EROSION | WATER | NUTRIENTS | BIOLOGY SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 14 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FABA BEAN1 environmental issues Section 14 faba bean June 2018 environmental issues Key points • important environmental issues include: soil erosion management, responsible pesticide stewardship and biosecurity. • other issues include water use, managing nutrient losses, rhizobium activity with changed atmosphere, and integrated management of pests, weeds and diseases.   2...

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GrowNote Peas South 5 Plant Growth Physiology

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KEY POINTS | FIELD PEA TYPE AND PHYSIOLOGY | FIELD PEA GROWTH STAGES | GERMINATION AND EMERGENCE | NODULATION AND NODULATION FAILURE | ABIOTIC STRESSES (ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS) ON PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY | CROP LODGING | REDUCED SHATTERING | NATIONAL FIELD PEA BREEDING OBJECTIVES SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY FIELD PEA1 plant growth and physiology Section 5 field pea June 2018 plant growth and physiology Key points • Field pea varieties range in growth habit from trailing, leafy types to being semi-leafless and so erect at...

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GrowNote Peas South 12 Storage

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KEY POINTS | STORING PULSES | CONDITION OF THE SEED AT HARVEST | HANDLING FIELD PEA | GRAIN CLEANING | ON-FARM STORAGE | GRAIN QUALITY IN STORAGE | MOISTURE CONTENT AND TEMPERATURE | COOLING AND DRYING PULSES | PREVENTING MOISTURE MIGRATION | GRAIN BAGS FOR PULSE STORAGE | GRAIN STORAGE: GET THE ECONOMICS RIGHT | INSECT PESTS IN STORAGE | FARM AND GRAIN HYGIENE | FUMIGATION IN SEALED SILOS | ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS FOR PULSES | SEALING SILOS SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 12 STORAGE FIELD PEA 1 storage Section 12 field pea GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June...

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GrowNote Lentil South 11 Pre Harvest Treatments

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KEY POINTS | DESICCATION | CROP-TOPPING | WINDROWING SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 PRE-HARVEST TREATMENTS LENTIL1 pre-harvest treatments Section 11 LentiL June 2018 pre-harvest treatments Key points • Crop-topping is a form of desiccation, and is common practice in lentil.\ • timing of crop-topping is based on the weed stages of development to prevent weed seedset. • Crop desiccation is used to aid in uniform ripening of the crop and to k\ ill green weeds for harvest. • Desiccation enables an earlier harvest. • Do not use glyphosate to desiccate lentil crops if the...

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GrowNote Lentil South 5 Post Planting

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KEY POINTS | ROLLING LENTIL SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 5 POST PLANTING LENTIL 1 post planting Section 5 LentiL GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June 2018 post planting Key points • Rolling lentil improves harvest efficiency and minimises soil contamination at delivery. • Rolling lentil helps protect the crop from post-sowing herbicide damage. • a flat, firm soil surface at harvest becomes even more essential when crops are short in height at maturity due to low rainfall. • the optimum timing for post-emergent rolling is when most of the crop is close to the top of the furrow: 3–5-...

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GrowNote Lentil South 3 Pre planting

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KEY POINTS | LENTIL TYPES | SELECTION OF VARIETIES | RED LENTIL VARIETIES | GREEN LENTIL VARIETIES | SEED | PBR AND ROYALTIES SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 3 PRE-PLANTING LENTIL 1 pre-planting Section 3 LentiL GROWNOTES SOUTHERN June 2018 pre-planting Key points • lentil varieties differ physiologically by seed size, seed coat colour, kernel (cotyledon), colour and time to maturity. • red lentil is split or de-hulled for human consumption. • Contamination of ‘off-type’ lentil varieties can lead to marketing concerns. • green lentil is predominantly used whole for...

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GrowNote Lentil South 0 Contents

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SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS LENTILv June 2018 Contents Contents LentiL 1 Introduction Key points........................................................................\ ........................................................ 1 Keys to successful lentil production ........................................................................\ ......... 2 1.1 The role of pulses in the farming system ............................................................... 3 1.2 Why grow lentil...

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Names

Lens culinaris in differrent languages.

Cicer lens
Ervum lens
Lens esculenta
Thjerrëza
Linte
蘭度豆
મસુર
Čočka jedlá
Lentilha cultivada
Soczewica jadalna
Mercimek
مسور
Linser
ମସୁର
レンズマメ
ምስ'ር
Dilista
මසූර්
Lentille cultivée
Mdengu
মসুর ডাল
Linse
மைசூர்ப் பருப்பு
Азықтық жасымық
Сэвэгзарам
نیسک
مرجی
Mercu
Thiết đậu
Caxtillān pitzāhuac etl
Lantrihas
Jôdnô soczewica
Наск
مھري دال
مرجیمک
עדשה תרבותית
Сочевиця звичайна
Valgomasis lęšis
Főzeléklencse
Nîsk
Леща
Povrtna leća
Llentilla
Lentilha
Леќа
Lins
སྲན་ལེབ་ཆུང་ངུ།
Φακή
Linze
렌즈콩
Lääts
Lenticchia
मसूर
Linsubaun
Lentil
Navadna leča
Sok
Šošovica jedlá
Чечевица пищевая
Mərcimək
小扁豆
Lens culinaris
Ясмăк
Corbysen corbys
ТIипало
Lento
Kylvövirvilä
ಮಸೂರ ಅವರೆ
Lēcas
Ясмык
לינזן
Lintile
Сочиво
Leća
عدس
मुसुरो
Lentella
Linse

Q&A

Description

P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.

Hosts

P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).

Source: cabi.org