P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
KEY POINTS | ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS FOR PLANTS | CONSIDERATIONS WHEN DIAGNOSING NUTRIENT DISORDERS | SOIL AND PLANT TISSUE TESTING | NITROGEN (N) | PHOSPHORUS (P) | POTASSIUM (K) | CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND SULFUR | BORON | COPPER (CU) | IRON (FE) \ | MANGANESE (MN) | MOLYBDENUM (MO) | ZINC (ZN) | LIME | COBALT (CO) | SOIL PH AND TOXICITIES | DETERMINING FERTILISER REQUIREMENTS | NUTRIENT BUDGETING | NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS OF LENTIL | KEYS FOR SUCCESSFUL UPTAKE OF NUTRIENTS BY LENTIL SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 7 NUTRITION AND FERTILISER LENTIL1...
1 LENTIL Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage N. H. IV,- Faridabad, Haryana National Institute of Plant Health Management Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Government of India AESA BASED IPM PACKAGE http://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i...
Efforts were made to study integrated disease management for lentil stemphylium blight caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr at GLRP, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during 2011/12 and 2012/13 using CRD in laboratory (in-vitro), RCBD in field (in-vivo) and screening host resistance genotypes. Over years, botanicals Acoruscalamus L. and Zanthozylum armatum DC, fungicides Mancozeb and Krilaxyl and antagonist Trichoderma viridae were effective for disease control and yield increment. Acorus calamus L. at higher dose (8% W/V) and Krilaxyl even at lower (500 ppm) on potato dextrose agar (PDA) checked the...
Lentil is a valuable rabi crop as it is relatively drought tolerant and requires fewer inputs. All stages of crop production need attention as pests (insect and diseases) are being managed through traditional farming methods, often leading to low quality and yield parameters. Department of Agriculture and Co-operation (DAC) under Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India has taken up massive outreach programme in pulse under National Food Security Mission to increase pulse production and productivity in major pulse growing districts. Of late, National Centre for Integrated Pest Management...
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P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.