Cassava (Manihot esculenta)

Description

 

Resources

69 resources available. Click on the image to preview, click on the publisher link to download.

Timely cassava planting to minimize mealybugs

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Tanzania, December 2014 Timely cassava planting to minimize mealybugs Recognize the problem Cassava mealybugs are also called “Vidung’ata” in Swahili. They are tiny insects, less than ½ cm in size. They are soft- bodied, wingless, and covered by white wax and hairs. They appear like small white cotton masses on stems and on the underside of leaves. Mealybugs distort terminal shoots, and curl leaves. They also lead to small leaves and stunted plants. Background Young mealybugs are crawlers and can spread over the plant or can be...

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Control of cassava mosaic disease by uprooting

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Tanzania, October 2014 Control of cassava mosaic disease by uprooting Recognize the problem Cassava mosaic disease is a plant virus that reduces cassava production. It is called Batobato ya muhogo in Kiswahili. The disease causes curling of leaves and the formation of yellow-greenish or white-greenish patches within the green leaf which is known as chlorosis or mosaic. When the disease is severe, the new leaves are small and distorted and the plants become stunted. Totally yellow leaves of normal size or brown leaves are not a sign of...

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Nurseries for clean cassava planting material

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Tanzania, October 2014 Nurseries for clean Cassava planting material Recognize the problem Planting material for cassava production needs to be obtained from healthy plants. This means plants that show no symptoms of any disease: no leaf colour changes or chlorosis, no twisted or curled leaves, no shoot tip dieback, no dark or white fungus patches or streaks on the stem, no rotten spots and no other abnormal characteristics. The most common of these diseases are Cassava Brown Streak Virus and Cassava Mosaic Virus. Such diseases can...

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Avoiding cassava mosaic virus in your field

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Democratic Republic of the Congo, May 2014 Avoiding Cassava Mosaic Virus in your field Recognize the problem Cassava is a hugely important crop in central West Africa. Unfortunately, it is affected by some major diseases and pests. Cassava Mosaic Virus has spread to many parts of Africa and can reduce yields considerably. In the field, you can recognise the virus by its mosaic pattern on the leaves, as well as making the leaf deformed and with blisters. The roots are reduced in size as well. This virus is transmitted from one plant to...

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Using resistant or tolerant varieties against cassava bacterial blight

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Democratic Republic of the Congo, May 2014 Resistant or tolerant varieties against cassava bacterial blight Recognize the problem Eight out of ten households cultivate cassava. It is a very important food crop in Africa and, unfortunately, it is affected by many diseases and pests. Vascular bacterial blight considerably reduces the yield, as well as the quality of the leaves. In the field, we see yellow to brown, dried, squarish spots, generally delineated by the veins. Between the leaf and the stem, there is usually a white gummy and...

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Pawpaw leaves and cassava peels to trap snails

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Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Zambia , August 2013 Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug Recognize the problem Cassava mealybug is a serious insect pest of cassava. This pest is woolly, oval, whitish-pink and about 3-5 mm long. It feeds on the tip of plants which reduces the growth of leaves and tubers. It can cause up to 50% loss of tubers and 100% loss of leaves. This pest looks like white cotton wool and is found on the tips of plants and the underside of leaves. Affected plants show signs of yellowing and curling of...

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Clean cassava cuttings to stop mealybug spread

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Planting material free of cassava mosaic virus

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Zambia , August 2013 Planting material free of cassava mosaic virus Recognize the problem Cassava mosaic virus is a disease which affects cassava plants. Symptoms of the disease include the appearance of yellowish green small patches across the leaves (mosaics), and distorted or deformed leaves. When the disease develops as a result of infected planting materials, then symptoms are first seen on the leaves near the ground. If the disease was spread by whiteflies, the symptoms are first seen on...

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Control of larger grain borer in stored maize

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Malawi , July 2013 Control of larger grain borer in stored maize Recognize the problem Larger Grain Borer (LGB) is locally called Nankafumbwe wamkulu. It is a dark brown beetle which has a square body. This pest destroys maize grains when they are in storage. Background LGB attacks maize right from the field and continues in the store. It also feeds on wood, plastics, storage bags and cassava. LGB bores into the grain, and feeds, leaving an empty shell, while the weevil only feeds on the heart...

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Cassava hornworm

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Trinidad and Tobago , November 2011 Cassava hornworm Recognize the problem The cassava hornworm is a pest of cassava. The adult hornworm is a moth and its offspring is a worm that eats and destroys the cassava leaf. The worms eat many holes on the younger leaves, and then attack the mature leaves. If left untreated the hornworm eats all the leaves in the field and even damages stems. Background The adult hornworm lays eggs on the leaves. The eggs hatch into worms in 3 to 5 days....

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Root nematode management in banana

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Cassava mosaic disease

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Sierra Leone , December 2006 Cassava mosaic disease Recognize the problem Cassava mosaic disease is commonly known as leprosy. Sick plants have pale green and yellowish patches on the leaves. The sick plants are often small. They do not grow to their normal height. Sick plants have small leaves and small tubers so the harvest is poor. Background Cassava mosaic disease is caused by a germ spread by a small insect called whitefly. The whitefly lives under the leaves. The germs live inside the...

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Attracting snails away from garden plants

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Sierra Leone , May 2012 Attracting snails away from garden plants Recognize the problem Snails are pests that move very slowly and carry their house (a shell) on their back. They eat the leaves of many plants. They make holes in the leaves and often leave a trail of clear slime where they have moved over the leaf or ground. Background Because snails move very slowly, it is easy to catch them and remove them from plants. But they can be difficult to find during the daytime when the sun is...

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Preventing weeds in cassava

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Sierra Leone , May 2012 Preventing weeds in cassava Recognize the problem Weeds are unwanted plants that affect the growth of cassava and reduce the crop yield. Weeds compete with cassava for nutrients, water, space, light and soil moisture. They give protection and food for crop pests, which makes the number of pests increase. Background Weeds need light to be able to grow. They will grow on bare soil and where there is a lot of light. If there are already other plants growing and shading the...

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MM, mountain microorganisms

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Honduras , November 2012 MM, mountain microorganisms Recognize the problem Several crop diseases and pests can be prevented by fertilizing the plants with MM, which stands for mountain microorganisms. Background Not all fungi and bacteria are harmful. The decomposing litter found in the mountains contains useful microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, which can fight diseases and crop pests. These microorganisms can be collected and cultivated to be used as controllers of plant problems or...

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Cassava; a nutritious and healthy staple crop

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Barbados , October 2012 Cassava; a nutritious and healthy staple crop Recognize the problem Cassava is the third most significant staple food in the world. However, consumption of cassava, as an ingredient or processed product, is low in Barbados because consumers believe incorrectly that cassava contains cyanide and is poisonous. Background The cassava plant does not contain cyanide as a pure compound but contains two chemicals, linomarin and lotaustralin, which can produce hydrogen cyanide...

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Brown leaf spot (BLS) of cassava

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Uganda , August 2012 Brown Leaf Spot (BLS) of Cassava Recognize the problem Brown leaf spot (BLS) disease is caused by a fungus. It is one of the worst fungal diseases of cassava. BLS disease appears as small brown spots with dark borders on the upper leaf surface (Top picture). The brown spots form between leaf veins so their size and shape are limited by the veins. The centre of the brown spots may fall out leaving a hole in the leaf. During a bad attack the infected leaves become yellow and...

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Killing grasshopper eggs

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Sierra Leone , December 2008 (Revised December 2012) Killing grasshopper eggs Recognize the problem The grasshopper eats at least 18 different types of crops in Sierra Leone. Between March and April you will find grasshoppers mating, mounting on each other. Immediately after mating the male dies. This means you will find dead grasshoppers around, although in some cases female grasshoppers cut off the head of the male and eat the head. Background Grasshoppers lay eggs in old cassava plantations...

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Mimosa diplotricha

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Vietnam , March 2016 Mimosa diplotricha Recognize the problem Family: Fabaceae (pea family) Common names: Giant sensitive plant , creeping sensitive plant, nila grass, tropical blackberry. Vietnamese : Trinh nữ móc. Annual, biennial or evergreen, scrambling, climbing, strongly branched shrub, forming dense thickets 2 – 3 (– 6 ) m tall; woody at the base with age; stems green or purplish tinged, 4 – 5 -angled in cross-section, covered with sharp, recurved, yellowish...

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Names

Manihot esculenta in differrent languages.

Mhogo
Mihogo
Shakarkandi
Manihot flabellifolia
Manihot utilissima
Manihot utilissima Pohl
Janipha manihot (L.) Kunth
Jatropha manihot L.
Manihot aipi Pohl
Manihot dulcis (J. F. Gmelin) Pax
Manihot manihot (L.) Cockerell
Manihot melanobasis Muell. Arg.
Cassava
Tapioca plant
Manihot
Manioc
Maniok
Cassave
Mandioca
Macaxeira (sweet varieties)
Yuca
Aipim (Brazil)
Broodwortel
Manihot esculenta
Maniok
Balinghoy
Maniok
Jawaw
Mandioca
Kamoteng kahoy
Kassava
Maniok
Cassava
Manioko
Manihot esculenta
Manioka
Maniokki
Maniok
Manioc
Casabhach
Mandioca
Mandi'o
Rogo
Manioka
Prawy maniok
Ketela pohon
Balinghoy
Manioko
Manihot esculenta
Mandioko
Manihot esculenta
Valgomasis manijokas
Manioka
Ubi Parancih
Ubi kayu
Cuauhcamohtli
Cassave
Maniok
Chinangwa
Maniok jadalny
Mandioca
Rumu
Cassava
Manioka
Manioc
Manioka
Tapioka
Sampeu
Maniok
Muhogo
Kamoteng-kahoy
Manyok
Bilanghoy
Moegsawz
Manihot esculenta
Manihot esculenta
Broodwortel
Manihot esculenta
Maniok
Balinghoy
Маніёк
Maniok
Jawaw
কাসাভা
Mandioca
Kamoteng kahoy
Jôdny maniok
Maniok jedlý
Kassava
Maniok
Pšawy maniok
Cassava
Manioko
Manihot esculenta
Manioka
Maniokki
Maniok
Manioc
Casabhach
Mandioca
Mandi'o
મોગો
Rogo
कसावा
Manioka
Prawy maniok
Manyòk dous
Manióka
Ketela pohon
Balinghoy
Manioko
Kassavarót
Manihot esculenta
Ketéla pohung
Mandioko
Mĩanga
Manihot esculenta
Valgomasis manijokas
Manioka
Ubi Parancih
മരച്ചീനി
Ubi kayu
Cuauhcamohtli
Cassave
Maniok
Chinangwa
Maniòc
Maniok jadalny
Mandioca
Rumu
Маниок
Cassava
Manioka
Manioc
Manioka
Tapioka
Sampeu
Maniok
Muhogo
மரவள்ளி
Kamoteng-kahoy
Mānioke
Manyok
Māniota
Sắn
Bilanghoy
木薯
Moegsawz
Chhiū-chî
木薯
木薯
Manihot esculenta
Manihot esculenta
Broodwortel

Q&A

Manihot esculenta Spermacoce verticillata Long, Short
Description

S. verticillata is an annual, or more usually perennial. Stems straggling, to 100 cm or more, glabrous or nearly so, usually erect and simple or sparsely branched, often copiously branched from the base, usually 40 cm high or less, the stems tetragonous. Stipule sheath very short, the setae about 1.5 mm long;leaves glabrous, sessile or nearly so, linear or lanceo-linear, mostly 1.5-4 cm long and 1.5-6 mm broad, commonly 1-veined, often with fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils. Flowers white, very small in sessile clusters at the upper stem nodes or more usually terminal, then the heads subtended by 2 or 4 leaf-like bracts. Hypanthium pilose above, the 2 sepals narrowly triangular, 1.5 mm long or less. Corolla of 4 petals, 3 mm long, hispidulous outside at the apex, the lobes about equalling the tube;anthers exserted. Capsule 2.5 mm long;seeds reddish brown about 1 mm long (PIER, 2016).

Impact

S. verticillata is a scrambling annual or perennial native to the Americas. It has been introduced widely but sporadically across Asia and the Pacific and to tropical Australia. It can grow on a wide range of land types but often requires disturbance to establish. S. verticillata can form large clumps which can smother other vegetation. In its native range it has been recorded as a significant weed of agricultural crops, for example in the Caribbean it is a problem of sugarcane, vegetables and root crops (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991). In addition to this, on St Helena, it is among the exotic plants threatening the critically endangered fern, Pteris adscensionis.

Hosts


In a number of countries S. verticillata has been shown to have a negative impact on agricultural crops such as Coffea arabica, Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Saccharum officinarum, Theobroma cacao, Vigna unguiculata Manihot esculenta and Zea mays (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Holm, 1997;Johnson, 1997;Marques et al., 2011;Cherigo et al., 2012).


Source: cabi.org
Manihot esculenta Cassava mosaic disease
Description

CBSVs have slightly flexuous particles with a modal length of ca 650 nm. Particles contain single-stranded genomic RNA of approximately 9008-9070 nt which is encapsidated in a coat protein of ca 43 kDa for UCBSV and ca 45 kDa for CBSV (Winter et al., 2010). The genome structure of the cassava brown streak viruses is unique because of a MAf/Ham1-like sequence inserted upstream the coat protein gene and a P1 gene to which gene silencing suppression function was assigned.

Symptons

The name brown streak was given to the disease from the brown lesions which sometimes appear on young green stems. These were the first symptoms of the disease to be recognised, however stem lesions are not the most characteristic symptom of infection and occur only infrequently.;Unlike symptoms induced by the majority of plant viruses, those of CBSD in cassava normally affect mature or nearly mature leaves but not expanding, immature leaves. They consist of a characteristic yellow or necrotic vein banding which may enlarge and coalesce to form comparatively large, yellow patches. Tuberous root symptoms may also be present: these consist of dark-brown necrotic areas within the tuber and reduction in root size, lesions in roots can result in post-harvest spoilage of the crop. Leaf and/or stem symptoms can occur without the development of tuber symptoms, thus, of plants with above-ground symptoms surveyed in southern Tanzania, 21% failed to develop root necrosis (Hillocks et al., 1996).;The symptoms of the disease vary greatly with variety and environmental conditions, making diagnosis difficult, particularly when plants are infected both with CBSD and cassava mosaic disease.


Source: cabi.org
Manihot esculenta Dieback
Description

S. vayssierei is the only known hypogeal (below-ground) species in the family Stictococcidae (Tindo et al., 2006). It is a Sternorrhynchan with incomplete metamorphosis. Ngeve (2003a) described the males as rare and the more common adult female as dark-red, circular and flattened. In contrast, Tindo et al. (2006) described the adult females as brown and the first and second instars as purple-red.

Symptons

Young feeder roots of germinating cassava cuttings are attacked by both the nymphs and adults of S. vayssierei. The feeding damage causes premature leaf-fall, wilting, tip dieback and ultimately results in death. Those plants that are not attacked until later develop normally and tuberize, however, they exhibit small mature tuberous roots and become covered in scales, making them unsuitable for sale (Ngeve, 2003a).

Hosts

S. vayssierei feeds on the root system of cassava (Manihot esculenta), affecting tuber formation of the plant (Williams et al., 2010);however, there is evidence to suggest either polyphagy or involvement of more than a single scale species (Tindo et al., 2006). Sixteen plant species belonging to 13 families have been identified as hosts of S. vayssierei in the Congo basin (Tindo et al., 2009;see Host Plants/Crops Affected), but this may reflect the involvement of more than one species, as yet unidentified. It is thought that native Dioscorea species may play an important role in maintaining Stictococcus populations during long fallows and in secondary and primary forests. Cassava, an exotic plant in this area, may contribute to the growth of S. vayssierei in fallows less than 8 years old (Tindo et al., 2009).

Biological Control
According to Ngeve (2003b), biological control agents such as endomycorrhizae should be studied to determine their usefulness in pest control in Cameroon farming conditions.

Source: cabi.org