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BestBet EstablishmentSouth2014

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‘Best Bet’ IPM strategy  Establishment pests – Southern region    Pre‐season Pre‐sowing Emergence Crop establishment  Earth mites ...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

BestBet EstablishmentNorth2014

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‘Best Bet’ IPM strategy  Establishment pests – Northern region    Pre‐season Pre‐sowing Emergence Crop establishment  Blue earth mites  (BOM) Assess risk.    High risk when   history of high mite pressure   susceptible crop (canola, pasture, lucerne)   rotating from pasture to crop   seasonal forecast for dry or cool, wet conditions.    If risk high, consider:    planting a less susceptible crop   controlling mites in  the pasture to reduce  carryover   using a seed dressing on susceptible crops. If high risk:  monitor frequently until crop  establishment   consider a higher ...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

Maize IPM Workshops north March2013

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                Maize insect pest management   Northern grains region   Compiled  by  Kate  Charleston,  March  2013  This publication has  been compiled  by Kate  Charleston  of  Crop  and Food  Science,  Queensland  Department  of Agriculture,  Fisheries and  Forestry,  and draws  on previous publications and  original research  by Dave  Murray  and other  departmental  Entomologists.  DAFF and GRDC  funding  for the  IPM  Workshops  project (DAQ00179)  has assisted  the preparation of  this public ation.   Unless otherwise  acknowledged, photographs are  provided by DAFF  Queensland...

Published at: ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au

Que es la Agricultura Sustentable

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¿QUÉ ES LA AGRICULTURA SUSTENTABLE? 1 www.sare.org UN MUESTRARIO DE PRÁCTICAS SUSTENTABLES DE SARE INVESTIGACIÓN Y EDUCACIÓN EN AGRICULTURA SUSTENTABLE (SARE, SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION) ¿qué es la agricultura SUSTENTABLE ?2 ¿QUÉ ES LA AGRICULTURA SUSTENTABLE? www.sare.org Todos los días, agricultores y rancheros alrededor del mundo desar - rollan estrategias nuevas e innovadoras para producir y distribuir alimentos, combustible y fibra de manera sustentable. Aunque estas estrategias son altamente variables, todas ellas tienen tres objetivos generales,...

Published at: sare.org

Estrategias Economico Ambientales en la Crianza de Cerdos

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02/04 THE NATIONAL OUTREACH ARM OF USDA-SARE Estrategias Económico-Ambientales en la Crianza de Cerdos TOM FRANTZEN, AGRICULTOR DE NEW HAMPTON, IOWA 1,HA criado cerdos desde el parto hasta el engorde durante 14 a?os. Criaba 1,200 2cerdos en estructuras cerradas en el invierno y en pastos durante el verano. Las pocilgas donde invernaban las cerdas eran desagradables. En los meses fr?os los animales no engordaban bien y se com- portaban agresivamente. El esti?rcol ca?a en un foso a trav?s del piso de rejilla. Frantzen lo bombeaba y repart?a luego por sus campos de ma?z, soya y pastos. ?...

Published at: sare.org

GRDC GrowNotes Durum Western

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PLANNING AND PADDOCK PREPARATION PLANTING PLANT GROWTH (PHENOLOGY) NUTRITION AND FERTILISER DISEASES WEEDS AND HERBICIDES PESTS AND INSECTS FROST AND HEAT STRESS HARVEST GRAIN MARKETING CURRENT RESEARCH GRDC AND INDUSTRY CONTACTS WESTERN DURUM DECEMBER 2017 GROWNOTES TMii DURUM Start here for answers to your immediate durum crop management issues What variety of durum should I grow? What fertilisers do I require? Are the diseases of durum manageable? Are there specific weed control issues? How do I manage pests and insects? How do I market my durum grain?   fi  ffi( )...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Durum West 0 Contents

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WESTERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS DURUMiv Contents DURUM Contents Introduction A.1 Overview ........................................................................\ ...............................................1 A.2 Durum wheat economics and grain quality ........................................................... 3 A.3 Agronomic factors ........................................................................\ .............................. 4 A.4 Plant development and growth stages .................................................................. 5 A.5 Estimating grain yield...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GRDC GrowNotes Field Peas WESTERN

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PLANNING/PADDOCK PREPARATION PRE-PLANTING PLANTING PLANT GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGY NUTRITION AND FERTILISER WEED CONTROL INSECT CONTROL NEMATODE MANAGEMENT DISEASES PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS AND CANOPY MANAGEMENT CROP DESICCATION AND SPRAY OUT HARVEST STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES MARKETING CURRENT AND PAST RESEARCH WESTERN FIELD PEAS AUGUST 2017 GROWNOTES ™DISCLAIMER: Any recommendations, suggestions or opinions contained in this publicati\ on do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC). No person should act on t\ he basis of...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Lentil West 9 Pest Management

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WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 9 PEST MANAGEMENT LENTIL KEY POINTS | INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) | IDENTIFYING PESTS | KEY PESTS OF LENTIL | OTHER PESTS OF LENTIL | OCCASIONAL PESTS OF LENTIL | EXOTIC LENTIL INSECTS – BIOSECURITY THREATS | BENEFICIAL SPECIES | COMMONLY USED REGISTERED INSECTICIDES1 pest management Section 9 LentiL June 2018 pest management Key points • the key pests of lentil in southern a ustralia are Helicoverpa punctigera (native budworm), etiella, snails, slugs, aphids, redlegged earth mite\ s and lucerne flea. • Integrated pest...

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GrowNote Lupin West 0 Table Contents

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WESTERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS LUPIN iv GROWNOTES WESTERN JUNE 2018 Contents Contents LUPIN Introduction A.1 Crop overview .............................................................................................................. 1 A.2 Types of lupin grown in WA ....................................................................................... 1 A.2.1 Narrow leafed lupin .................................................................................................... 1 A.2.2 Albus lupin...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Lupin West 11 Markets

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OVERVIEW | EXPORT DESTINATIONS | DOMESTIC MARKETS | HUMAN CONSUMPTION MARKETS | GRAIN SPECIFICATIONS | ON-FARM FACTORS INFLUENCING LUPIN DELIVERIES AND MARKETING WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 GRAIN MARKETS LUPIN1 grain markets Section 11 LUPIN July 2018 grain markets 11.1 Overview The bulk of Western Australia’s total annual production of narrow leafed lupin grain is exported, predominantly for use as animal feed, to key markets in the European Union, Japan and Korea. The remainder is retained on-farm for use as stock feed or planting seed, or traded to domestic buyers....

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Oats West 00 Contents

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WESTERN FEBRUARY 2016 CONTENTS OATSA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 iv February 2016 Feedback Table of Contents OATs - Contents A Introduction A.1 Hay ........................................................................\ .............................................xi A.2 Grain ........................................................................\ ......................................... xii A.3 Grazing ........................................................................\ ..................................... xii A.4 Exports...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Oats West 0A Introduction

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HAY | GRAIN | GRAZING | EXPORTS | HEALTH BENEFITS WESTERN SECTION A INTRODUCTION OATS FEBRUARY 2016A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 x February 2016 Feedback Table of Contents SECTION A OATS - Introduction SECTION A Introduction Oats make up about one per cent of land use in Western Australia’s eastern wheatbelt. Most are used as opportunity hay crops or for stockfeed. There is a lack of agronomic research into growing oats in these lower-rainfall areas— but they offer diversification and profit potential. New oat agronomy research aims to expand...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Triticale West 07 Insects

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INSECT PESTS OF WINTER CEREALS | INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT | APHIDS | CUTWORM | REDLEGGED EARTH MITE | BLUE OAT MITE | BALAUSTIUM MITE | BRYOBIA MITE | LUCERNE FLEA | ARMYWORM | SLUGS AND SNAILS WESTERN SECTION 7 INSECT CONTROL TRITICALE MAY 2018 1 InseCt ContRol seCtIon 7 TRITICALE WESTERN May 2018 Insect control Key messages: • Triticale varieties are affected by only a few insect pests. 1 • Triticale has the same insect predators during growth as other cereals but in general fewer insect control measures are required with the exception of grain...

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3 Paddock Prep GRDC GrowNotes Vetch West

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KEY POINTS | SOIL PREPARATION | STUBBLE | WEED CONTROL | CARRYOVER PESTS | CARRYOVER DISEASES WESTERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 3 PADDOCK PREPARATION VETCH1 paddock preparation Section 3 VETCH June 2018 paddock preparation key points • Sowing into paddocks with low broadleaf weed infestations is important, as vetch is a poor early competitor against weeds. • use integrated pest, disease and weed-management practices. • control the weed and volunteer ‘green bridge’ before seeding to minimise disease and pest carryover. • remediate soil constraints during the summer fallow...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Chickpea South 0 Contents

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SOUTHERN SEPTEMBER 2018 CONTENTS CHICKPEAv July 2017 Contents Contents ChiCkpeaIntroduction Key messages ............................................................................................................\ ..................... xxii A.1 Crop overview ........................................................................\ .................................. xxii Desi .............................................................................................................\ ....................................... xxiv Kabuli...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Peas South 0 Contents

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SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 CONTENTS FIELD PEAv June 2018 Contents Contents field pea 1 Introduction Key points........................................................................\ ........................................................ 1 1.1 Field pea types ........................................................................\ .................................... 2 1.2 Field pea history of use ........................................................................\ ..................... 3 1.3 Why plant field pea...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Lupin South 11 Markets

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OVERVIEW | EXPORT DESTINATIONS | DOMESTIC MARKETS | HUMAN CONSUMPTION MARKETS | GRAIN SPECIFICATIONS SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 11 GRAIN MARKETS LUPIN1 grain markets november 2017 Section 11 LUPIN grain markets 11.1 overview It is estimated lupin grain production in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales reached a total of about 210,300 tonnes in 2016. This was made up of an estimated 89,000 t produced from an area of 69,500 hectares in SA; 44,900 t from 33,000 ha in VIC; and 76,400 t from 32,700 ha in NSW. 1 The bulk of annual narrow leafed lupin grain production...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Lupin South 8 Foliar Diseases

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OVERVIEW | ANTHRACNOSE | BROWN LEAF SPOT | PHOMOPSIS STEM AND POD BLIGHT | CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS (CMV) | BEAN YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS (BYMV) | SCLEROTINIA STEM AND COLLAR ROT | MINOR FOLIAR DISEASES IN SOUTHERN REGION LUPIN CROPS SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 8 FOLIAR DISEASES LUPIN1 foliar diseases November 2017 Section 8 LUPIN foliar diseases 8.1 overview The main fungal and viral diseases affecting lupin foliage, stems and pods in the southern region are: » Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lupini) » Brown leaf spot (Pleiochaeta setosa) » Phomopsis stem and pod blight (...

Published at: grdc.com.au

GrowNote Lupin South 10 Harvest

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OVERVIEW | HARVEST TIMING | MINIMISING SHATTERING AND POD DROP | MAINTAINING GRAIN QUALITY | MACHINERY CONFIGURATION | MANAGING HARVEST FIRE RISKS | STUBBLE MANAGEMENT | GRAIN STORAGE SOUTHERN JUNE 2018 SECTION 10 HARVEST LUPIN1 harvest November 2017 Section 10 LUPIN harvest 10.1 overview Modern lupin breeding has focused on developing lupin species and varieties that not only produce sweet and water-permeable seeds, but also have non-shattering pods to facilitate higher yields with mechanical harvest. Shedding (or pod drop) or shattering of mature grain, plant...

Published at: grdc.com.au

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Names

Medicago sativa in differrent languages.

Medicago komarovii
Medicago media
Medicago sativa subsp. sativa
Medicago schischkinii
Medicago tianschanica
Medicago trautvetteri
Medicago vardanis
Mielga
Lusern
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Alfals
Medicago sativa
Lucerne (plante)
Luzerne
Alfalfa
Luzerno
Medicago sativa
Harilik lutsern
Argi-belar
Sinimailanen
Alfalfey
Plava djetelina
Luzerno
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Luzerne
Lusern
Lucerna siewna
Medicago sativa
Lucerna
Lucerna siata
Foderlusern
Alpalpa
Yonca
Medicago sativa
Luzere
Erba medica
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Lusern
Medicago sativa
برسيم حجازي
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Люцэрна пасяўная
Alfals
Medicago sativa
Otá'tavö'êstse
Séwnô lucerna
Tolice vojtěška
Lucerne (plante)
Luzerne
Alfalfa
Luzerno
Medicago sativa
Harilik lutsern
Argi-belar
Sinimailanen
Luzerne cultivée
Alfalfa
Alfalfa
રજકો
Alfalfey
अल्फाल्फा
Plava djetelina
Módra šlinčina
Takarmánylucerna
Առվույտ
Alfalfa
Luzerno
Refasmári
Medicago sativa
ಆಲ್ಫಾಲ್ಫ
자주개자리
Medicago sativa
Sējas lucerna
അൽഫാൽഫ
Luzerne
Lusern
Lucerna siewna
Medicago sativa
Люцерна посевная
Lucerna
Alfalfa
Lucerna siata
Jonxhë
Foderlusern
குதிரை மசால்
అల్ఫాల్ఫా
Alpalpa
Yonca
Дүжер-меде тарымал
Cỏ linh lăng
Medicago sativa
Luzere
紫花苜蓿
Erba medica
Medicago sativa
Medicago sativa
Lusern

Q&A

Description

P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.

Hosts

P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).

Source: cabi.org
Medicago sativa Leptochloa fusca Short
Description


Perennial, loosely tufted to rhizomatous. Culms erect or geniculate and rooting from lower nodes, up to 100 cm or more tall. Leaf sheaths glabrous;leaf blades tough, usually involute, 5-30(-50) × 0.15-0.3(-0.6) cm, adaxial surface scabrid, abaxial surface subglabrous;ligule 3-12 mm, acute. Inflorescence 15-25 cm, scabrid;racemes 3-28, indistinctly unilateral, 4-20 cm, straight, ascending or spreading, spikelets usually distant. Spikelets glaucous-green, subterete, 6-14 mm, florets 5-12;glumes keeled;lower glume lanceolate, 2-3 mm, acute;upper glume narrowly oblong, 3-4 mm, acute or mucronate;lemmas narrowly oblong, dorsally sub-rounded, lowest 4-5 mm, lower lateral veins pilose, entire or 2-dentate, midvein often produced into a short 0.3-1.6 mm awn;palea ciliolate along upper keels. Callus laterally pilose. Anthers 0.5-0.75(-2.5) mm. Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, 1.5-2.5 mm, dorso-ventrally flattened. Flowers from June to September (based on description of L. fusca ssp. fusca from Flora of China, 2014).

Impact

L. fusca is a perennial weed with a global distribution. It is an aggressive species showing a competitive advantage in many situations due to its tolerance of saline and alkaline soils and its likely ability to fix nitrogen. It is commonly a serious weed of rice in many countries, and is of particular concern in Spanish rice fields. It is recorded as invasive on Hawaii and in the Chagos Archipeligo (as L. fusca ssp. uninervia) (PIER, 2014) and has been the subject of an ‘eradication action’ in Europe (Brunel et al., 2013).

Hosts

L. fusca (mainly ssp. fasciculari) is a major weed of rice in a number of countries including USA, Cuba and Spain. L. fusca ssp. fusca is also problematic in rice in India and other countries. It can also occur in lucerne/alfalfa, tomatoes and turf.


Source: cabi.org
Description

The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)

Impact

Erechtites hieraciifolius is a fast-growing, annual herb that is native to North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. It is recorded as an environmental and agricultural weed in areas both within and outside its native distribution. Mature plants can produce large amounts of wind-dispersed seed, facilitating the colonisation of new areas. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of disturbed anthropogenic habitats and can outcompete other species to form dense populations. It may also spread as a seed contaminant of crops. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hong Kong, Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, French Polynesia, Palau, US Minor Outlying Islands, New Zealand and Hungary. It is also considered a potential weed in Australia, where it is under quarantine.

Hosts

E. hieraciifolius has been listed as a weed of the following crops: oat (Avena sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum);it is also a weed of fodder crops (e.g. Medicago sativa) and of mixed pastures (Darbyshire et al., 2012).


Source: cabi.org
Description


The following description is taken from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):
Annual grass, culms tufted, erect or geniculately ascending, slightly flattened, 15–100 cm tall. Basal leaf sheaths strongly keeled, glabrous;leaf blades flat or folded, 5–30 cm, 2–7 mm wide, glabrous, adaxial surface scabrous, apex acuminate;ligule 0.5–1 mm, glabrous or ciliate. Racemes digitate, 5–12, erect or slightly slanting, 2–10 cm, silky, pale brown or tinged pink or purple;rachis scabrous or hispid. Spikelets with 2 or 3 florets, 2-awned;lower glume 1.8–2.2 mm;upper glume 3–4 mm, acuminate;lemma of fertile floret obovate-lanceolate in side view, 2.8–3.5 mm, keel gibbous, conspicuously bearded on upper margins with a spreading tuft of 2.5–3.5 mm silky hairs, margins, keel and flanks silky-ciliate or glabrous;awn 5–15 mm;second floret sterile, oblong, glabrous, awn 4–10 mm;third floret occasionally present, reduced to a small clavate scale, awnless.

Impact

Chloris virgata is a widespread and very variable weedy annual grass (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). This species is a particularly aggressive invader of bare areas and degraded or disturbed native vegetation, and it has the potential to out-compete native vegetation in these habitats (Smith, 2002;Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012;Weeds of Australia, 2015). This weedy grass spreads from cultivation, pastures, gardens, disturbed areas and roadsides to nearby disturbed forest, creeks and riversides, native grasslands and coastal habitats such as coastal forests and sand dunes (Weeds of Australia, 2015;FAO, 2015;PIER, 2015). It also grows as a weed in agricultural lands (Vibrans, 2009). Currently, this species is regarded as an invasive and environmental weed in northern Australia (i.e., Queensland and the Northern Territory;Weeds of Australia, 2015) and as an invasive grass in Cuba, Palau, New Caledonia, the Galapagos Islands, and Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999;Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008;Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012;PIER, 2015).

Hosts

C. virgata is a common weed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) fields of the southwestern USA (Barkworth, 2003) and maize and sorghum plantations in Mexico (Vibrans, 2009).


Source: cabi.org
Medicago sativa Polygonum arenastrum Short, Styles
Description


The following text is adapted from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015). P. arenastrum has procumbent or ascending stems, 15-30 cm tall, branched from base. Petiole is short, articulate at base. Leaf blade is elliptic or oblanceolate, 0.5-2 cm × 2-5 mm, both surfaces with conspicuous veins, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire, apex usually obtuse;ocrea white, 2-3 mm, membranous, 5-7 veined, lacerate. Flowers 3-5, grow in axillary fascicles;with narrowly ovate bracts and acute apex. Pedicel articulate at apex. Perianth is green, 5-cleft to 1/2, veined, margin white;tepals oblong. Stamens 8;filaments dilated at base. Styles 3, very short;stigmas capitate. Achenes (one-seeded fruit that does not open to release the seed) are included in persistent perianth, dark brown, opaque, narrowly ovoid, trigonous, rarely biconvex, 2-2.5 mm, densely minutely granular striate.

Impact

P. arenastrum is an annual species native to Eurasia. It is found in field and row crops, orchards, yards, gardens and turf. It readily invades areas compacted by trampling with foot traffic and is therefore frequently found along roadsides, sports fields, vacant lots, gravel parking areas and walkways. This species establishes a taproot, which allows it to survive periods of drought. As a result it can compete with agricultural crops for water and nutrients reducing yields. In California it is reported to have a negative impact on the threatened species Arenaria ursina [ Eremogone ursina ]. P. arenastrum is considered as an environmental weed in parts of Australia and an agricultural weed in cropping systems in Australia and Canada.

Hosts

Smith et al. (2008) note that P. arenastrum is troublesome in agricultural fields, in particular in alfalfa fields (Medicago sativa), where soil is compacted from wheel traffic.


Source: cabi.org
Description

S. latifolia subsp. alba is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb growing to 1 m in height. It has a tap root system which spreads laterally as the plant matures. Stems have hairs on the lower section that become glandular nearer the flower. Leaves are egg-shaped, and lower leaves are up to 10 cm long, reducing in size upward. Stem leaves are opposite. Inflorescences comprise unisexual flowers (plants are dioecious, i.e., either male or female) which are rather showy, evening blooming and scented;there are several to many in open, spreading, leafy-bracted clusters. Petals 5, white, tips wide, deeply notched into 2 lobes, 2 appendages above each petal in the flower centre, dividing into 2 lobes. Sepals 5, united, forming a downy, sticky tube 15-20 mm long. The calyx of the male flower has 10 veins;the femaleÕs 20 veins are longer, and inflate with ripening. Capsules are egg-shaped, to 20 mm long, with 10 teeth. Seeds are about 1.5 mm long, dark bluish-brown, and prominently warty-pimply in concentric rows (Alberta Weed Monitoring Network, 2014).

Hosts

S. latifolia subsp. alba competes with seed crop species including lucerne, clovers, grasses such as timothy and small grains. It displaces native plants such as the threatened Silene spaldingii (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007).


Source: cabi.org
Description


The following is modified from PIER, 2016, after Wagner et al., 1999

Impact

Juncus tenuis, commonly known as slender rush, is a clump-forming, tufted perennial herb. In its native environment in the Americas, J. tenuis is not usually considered ‘weedy’ since it is relatively small and commonly grows as a plant of pathways and road verges. It is named as a minor weed of alfalfa in Oklahoma, USA. It has also been reported to sometimes invade urban lawns and to cause problems on golf courses in North America. It has been introduced to parts of Asia, Africa, Europe and Oceania, most probably unintentionally since seeds are sticky and readily attach to animals, clothes and car tyres. It is regarded as invasive in Hawaii (PIER, 2016). It has also been recently reported among invasive species in Croatian forestry (Horvat & Franjic, 2016).

Biological Control
<br>The species does not seem to be important enough as a weed to be considered as a target for biological control.

Source: cabi.org