(Musa)

Resources

11 resources available. Click on the image to preview, click on the publisher link to download.

African organic training manual Banana

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9-19 BANANA African Organic Agriculture Training Manual A Resource Manual for Trainers Draft Version 1.0 June 2011 Ready for field testing African Organic Agriculture Training Manual Module 09 Crops Unit 19 Banana CONTENTS 1. Introduction 3 2. Improving management of banana pests and diseases 4 3. Improving the productivity of the banana plantation 12 4. Proper postharvest handling 16 5. Increasing returns from banana production 16 6. Marketing and organic certification of banana production 17 IMPRINT Publisher: FiBL, Research Institute of Organic...

Published at: organic-africa.net

IN37100

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EENY-214 Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) 1 M. C. Thomas, J. B. Heppner, R. E. Woodruff, H. V. Weems, G. J. Steck, and T. R. Fasulo 2 1. This document is EENY-214 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars 4, 230 and 273, updated for this publication), one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2001. Revised October 2007, June and September 2010, and October 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu . This document is also...

Published at: edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Musa spp. 2nd edition 502

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FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm. No.15 Musa spp. (2nd edition) edited by M. Diekmann and C.A.J. Putter2 FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of GermplasmNo. 15. Musa3 CONTENTS Introduction 4 Participants in the meeting 6 Definitions of Terms as Used in this Publication 10 Descriptions of Diseases 11 Abaca mosaic 11 Banana bract mosaic 12 Banana bunchy top 14 Banana mosaic 15 Banana streak 19 Bibliography 234 FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Germplasm INTRODUCTION Collecting, conservation and utilization of...

Published at: bioversityinternational.org

banana diamond leaf spot 072

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Photo 1. Large diamond-shaped spots of Cordana musae, parallel to the leaf veins. Photo 2. Association of diamond leaf spot, Cordana musae, with leaf spots of banana black cross, Phyllachora musicola. The suggestion is that Cordana is a weak pathogen needing a wound to infect. Photo 3. Diamond leaf spots, Cordana musae, centred on those of banana black cross, Phyllachora musicola. Photo 4. Leaf spots of Cordana johnsonii, up to 2 cm x 1 cm, brown or grey on lower sruface, with small black centres. Paler on upper surface. (This is a photo of a herbarium-dried leaf.) Pacific Pests and...

Published at: pestnet.org

banana freckle 124

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Photo 1. Small, raised spots with the flask- shaped fruiting bodies containing spores. The spots are at first reddish-brown later turning black and joining together to form patches or streaks. Photo 2. Dark brown to black spots, 0.5-1 mm diameter, on the upper leaf surface. Photo 3. Large numbers of spots on the leaves causing them to turn yellow and die early. Photo 4. Early death of the leaf due to freckle infection beginning at the leaf margin. Photo 5. Spots caused by the banana freckle fungus on the fruit. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens...

Published at: pestnet.org

banana fusarium wilt 176

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Photo 1. Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, on a banana plant showing yellowing of the leaves, first at the margins. Photo 2. Cut section of a banana stem affected by Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, showing symptoms of the water- conducting parts. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Banana Fusarium wilt (176)Banana Fusarium wilt (176) Common NameCommon Name Panama disease of banana, Fusarium wilt of banana. Scientific NameScientific Name Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense DistributionDistribution...

Published at: pestnet.org

banana weevil 109

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Photo 1. Adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Banana weevil (109)Banana weevil (109) Common NameCommon Name Banana weevil, Banana weevil borer, Banana root borer Scientific NameScientific Name Cosmopolites sordidus DistributionDistribution Worldwide. It is present in all banana-growing areas of the world (Asia, Africa, North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, Eurolpe, Oceania. It is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is recorded from American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,...

Published at: pestnet.org

citrus snow scale 105

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Photo 1 . F em ale c it ru s s n ow s ca le , Unasp is cit ri . Th e f e m ale is v ery d if fe re n t f ro m t h e m ale ; it is oval, b ro w n-b la ck a n d 2 m m lo ng, w here as t h e male is 1 m m, a n d w hit e . Dia gra m . L if e -c y cle o f a n a rm oure d s ca le . P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets C it r u s s n ow s ca le ( 1 05) C it r u s s n ow s ca le ( 1 05) C om mon N am e C om mon N am e C it r u s s n ow s ca le , w hit e lo use s ca le S cie n tif ic N am e S cie...

Published at: pestnet.org

bananas organic cultivation guide by naturland

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Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics Exemplary Description of 20 Crops Bananas © Naturland e.V. - 2nd edition 2001 These cultivation guidelines have been published by Naturland e.V. with the kind support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit mbH (GTZ, German Agency for Technical Cooperation) financed by the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenar- beit (BMZ, Federal Ministry for Development Cooperation). The cultivation recommendations at hand for 20 crops of the tropics and subtropics...

Published at: infonet-biovision.org

az1628 2014

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May 2014 AZ1628 Introduction Many invasive, nonnative plants have become established throughout Arizona. Of these, many are recognized as noxious weeds: a plant species that has been designated by state, federal or other agricultural or land management authority as economically or ecologically harmful to agricultural or horticultural crops, natural habitats or ecosystems, and humans or livestock. Noxious weeds are regulated by law and merit special attention and coordinated management efforts to prevent their spread and contain existing infestations. Preventing their spread through...

Published at: extension.arizona.edu

Governing Tenure Rights to Commons

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8GOVERNANCE OF TENURE TECHNICAL GUIDE Governing Tenure Rights to Commons A guide to support the implementation of the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security The FAO Governance of Tenure Technical Guides are part of FAO’s initiative to help develop capacities to improve tenure governance and thereby assist countries in applying the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. The FAO Governance...

Published at: fao.org

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Names

Musa in differrent languages.

Bananen
Musa (chenero)
Banann
Banans
Musa (planta)
Musa
Bananen
Musa (genus)
Bananujo
Musa (planta)
Banaan (perekond)
Musa (generoa)
Banaanit
Jaina
Banaan
Bananier
Musa (planta)
Banana
Bananowc
Pye fig
Musa
Musa (botanica)
Musa (genus)
Bananas
Musa
Banaan (geslacht)
Bananslekten
Banade
Banan
Bananeira
Bananier
Musa (genus)
Musa
Bananovec
Mgomba (mmea)
Banan
Musa
Musa
Абанан
Bananen
Musa (chenero)
موز (نبات)
Banann
Banans
Банан (ырыу)
Банан
Банан
Банан
কলা (ফল)
Musa (planta)
Musa
Banánovník
Banan-slægten
Bananen
Μπανανιά
Musa (genus)
Bananujo
Musa (planta)
Banaan (perekond)
Musa (generoa)
موز (سرده)
Banaanit
Jaina
Banaan
Bananier
Musa (planta)
Banana
Bananowc
Pye fig
Musa
Musa (botanica)
バショウ属
Банан
파초속
Банан
Musa (genus)
Bananas
Banānaugi
Банан
Musa
Banaan (geslacht)
Bananslekten
Bananièr
Banade
Banan
Bananeira
Bananier
Банан (род)
Musa (genus)
Musa
Banánovník
Bananovec
Banansläktet
Mgomba (mmea)
Банан
Banan
Банан (үсемлек)
Банан
Банан
Chi Chuối
Musa
芭蕉属
Musa
Bananen

Q&A

Description

Fusarium wilt of bananas is caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, a common soil inhabitant. Other formae speciales attack a wide variety of other crops, including cotton, flax, tomatoes, cabbages, peas, sweet potatoes, watermelons and oil palms.;The formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum each produce three types of asexual spores. The macroconidia (22-36 x 4-5 µm, see Wardlaw, 1961 for measurements) are produced most frequently on branched conidiophores in sporodochia on the surface of infected plant parts or in artificial culture. Macroconidia may also be produced singly in the aerial mycelium, especially in culture. The macroconidia are thin-walled with a definite foot cell and a pointed apical cell. Oval or kidney-shaped microconidia (5-7 x 2.5-3 µm) occur on short microconidiophores in the aerial mycelium and are produced in false heads. Both macroconidia and microconidia may also be formed in the xylem vessel elements of infected host plants, but the microconidia are usually more common. The fungus may be spread by macroconidia, microconidia and mycelium within the plant as well as outside the plant. Illustrations of the conidia have been published (Nelson et al., 1983).;Chlamydospores (9 x 7 µm) are thick-walled asexual spores that are usually produced singly in macroconidia or are intercalary or terminal in the hyphae. The contents are highly refractive. Chlamydospores form in dead host-plant tissue in the final stages of wilt development and also in culture. These spores can survive for an extended time in plant debris in soil.;Mutation in culture is a major problem for those working with vascular wilt isolates of F. oxysporum. The sporodochial type often mutates to a 'mycelial' type or to a 'pionnotal' type. The former has abundant aerial mycelium, but few macroconidia, whereas the latter produces little or no aerial mycelium, but abundant macroconidia. These cultures may lose virulence and the ability to produce toxins. Mutants occur more frequently if the fungus is grown on a medium that is rich in carbohydrates.

Symptons

Banana;The various symptoms of Fusarium wilt on banana are described and well illustrated by Ploetz and Pegg (1999).;The first external symptoms of Fusarium wilt on bananas is a faint off-green to pale-yellow streak or patch at the base of the petiole of one of the two oldest leaves. The disease can then progress in different ways. The older leaves can yellow, beginning with patches at the leaf margin. Yellowing progresses from the older to the younger leaves until only the recently unfurled or partially unfurled centre leaf remains erect and green. This process may take from 1 to 3 weeks in cultivar 'Gros Michel'. Often the yellow leaves remain erect for 1-2 weeks or some may collapse at the petiole and hang down the pseudostem. In contrast to this 'yellow syndrome', leaves may remain completely green except for a petiole streak or patch but collapse as a result of buckling of the petiole. The leaves fall, the oldest first, until they hang about the plant like a skirt. Eventually, all leaves on infected plants fall down and dry up. The youngest are the last to fall and often stand unusually erect.;Splitting of the base of the pseudostem is another symptom as is necrosis of the emerging heart leaf. Other symptoms include irregular, pale margins on new leaves and the wrinkling and distortion of the lamina. Internodes may also shorten (Stover, 1962, 1972, Jones, 1994, Moore et al., 1995).;The characteristic internal symptom of Fusarium wilt is vascular discoloration. This varies from one or two strands in the oldest and outermost pseudostem leaf sheaths in the early stages of disease to heavy discoloration throughout the pseudostem and fruit stalk in the later disease stages. Discoloration varies from pale yellow in the early stages to dark red or almost black in later stages. The discoloration is most pronounced in the rhizome in the area of dense vascularization where the stele joins the cortex. When symptoms first appear, a small or large portion of the rhizome may be infected. Eventually, almost the entire differentiated vascular system is invaded. The infection may or may not pass into young budding suckers or mature 'daughter' suckers. Where it does, discoloration of vascular strands may be visible in the excised sucker. Usually, suckers less than 1.5 m tall and ca. 4 months old do not show external symptoms. Where wilt is epidemic and spreading rapidly, suckers are usually infected and seldom grow to produce fruit. Above- and below-ground parts of affected plants eventually rot and die.;Fusarium wilt was reported to occur on banana cultivars of the 'Mutika-Lujugira' (AAA genome) subgroup in East Africa above 1400 m. Internal symptoms were much less extensive than those described above and external symptoms more subtle, comprising thin pseudostems and small fingers. Nevertheless, symptomatic plants were recognized by smallholders and were rogued. These mild symptoms were initially believed to be indicative of an attack on a plant whose defences have been weakened as a result of cooler conditions or other predisposing factors at altitude (Ploetz et al., 1994). Given the importance of this banana group, also referred to locally as ÔEast African highland bananasÕ, to local trade and as a staple food, further investigation was merited. This revealed that the disorder also affected non-indigenous banana types, including Cavendish and Bluggoe (which were not affected by Fusarium wilt) and was related to abnormal soil nutrient levels and farm management practice. Discoloration similar to that caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense was observed in vascular tissues of affected plants. Fusarium pallidoroseum (syn. Fusarium semitectum) was consistently isolated from such tissues but found to be non-pathogenic. F. oxysporum was not recovered (Kangire and Rutherford, 2001, Rutherford, 2006).

Hosts

F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense is one of around 100 formae speciales (special forms) of F. oxysporum which cause vascular wilts of flowering plants (Gerlach and Nirenberg, 1982). Hosts of the various formae speciales are usually restricted to a limited and related set of taxa. As currently defined, F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense affects the following species in the order Zingiberales: in the family Musaceae, Musa acuminata, M. balbisiana, M. schizocarpa and M. textilis, and in the family Heliconeaceae, Heliconia caribaea, H. chartacea, H. crassa, H. collinsiana, H. latispatha, H. mariae, H. rostrata and H. vellerigera (Stover, 1962, Waite, 1963). Additional hosts include hybrids between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana, and M. acuminata and M. schizocarpa.;F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense may survive as a parasite of non-host weed species. Three species of grass (Paspalum fasciculatum, Panicum purpurascens [ Brachiaria mutica ] and Ixophorus unisetus) and Commelina diffusa have been implicated (Waite and Dunlap, 1953).


Source: cabi.org
Description

Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).

Recognition

Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).

Symptons

Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).

Impact

Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

Hosts

Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).


Source: cabi.org