G. physocarpus is an upright, soft shrub 0.5 to 2 m tall with a fibrous rootstock. Young stems and inflorescences pubescent. Petiole approximately 1 cm;leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, 5-l0 ? 0.6-1.5 cm, adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially hairy along midvein, both ends tapering or acute. Branches are pale yellowish green and hollow. The leaves are light green, opposite, and narrowly oblong to lance-shaped. Flowers in pendulous clusters, corolla white, 1.4-2 cm in diameter;lobes ovate, 8-10 mm, reflexed, margin densely bearded. Corona lobes white, inner margin of hoodlike apex with 2, short, recurved or straight cusps, with a large adaxial nectary. In the centre of the flower is the corona, consisting of five pouched lobes that develop from the petals. The petals are white and the corona is suffused with pink or purple. The corona surrounds the stamens and carpels composed of ovary, style and stigma. The filaments of the stamens are fused to form a staminal column which encloses the female part. The female part consists of two free carpels, the tips of which are united and enlarged to form the style head. This is the yellowish, 5-lobed disc that can be seen at the centre of the flower. The anthers are fused to the style head. The pollen grains of each anther lobe are united to form two waxy masses known as pollinia or pollen sacs. Fruits are large spherical inflated follicles, 6-8 ? 2.5-5 cm, base oblique, apex rounded, beakless;pericarp with soft bristles or spines, minutely tomentose when young, glabrescent when ripe. Seeds ovate, approximately 5 mm;coma shining white, approximately 5 mm, each with a tuft of long silky hairs attached at one end (Notten, 2010;Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Pakistan, June 2014 Avoid Ratooning for the control of sugarcane whipsmut Recognize the problem Whipsmut is a major disease of sugarcane. It is caused by a fungus that produces a thin white and papery membrane on young shoots, and makes the end of the shoot curve inwards like a black whip when the crop is mature. When the fungus is older, many of the small spores on the black whip can be spread by wind, especially when the wind is strong. When a young plant is affected by whipsmut, the cane is short, stiff and produces more tillers...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Pakistan, June 2014 Biocontrol of Sugarcane stem borer Recognize the problem Stem borer caterpillars can damage up to 80% of a sugarcane field. They cause great economic loss for farmers because the sugarcane loses up to 30% of its sugar content. They attack mainly during the months of April to June. The caterpillar is dirty or creamy white, has five dark lines across its back and is about half the size of a small finger. When it attacks the sugarcane, the entire plant dries up and produces dead hearts, which cannot be pulled out...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Silky cane weevil Recognize the problem The weevil causes very severe damage. It almost completely destroys mature stems, leaving only decayed and fermented dry bagasse. The damage is caused by worms that make large holes inside the sugarcane stems, completely destroying them. The yield decreases and there is less chancaca. The silky cane weevil is an insect that measures 2 cm, the size of a corn grain. The adults have orange or yellow spots or stripes on their wings....
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Sugarcane white grub Recognize the problem This insect pest is known as white grub or root borer. The worms are curved (C-shaped) and white to cream. Their head is coffee-colored and their tail is dark with some hair. The grubs can measure around 5 cm in length. In a young cane, the grubs eat the cane ’ s roots and shoots. Be aware, especially in the re-growth of ratoon, since at this stage the attack is more severe and may lead to considerable losses. Background...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bolivia , July 2012 Sugarcane spittlebug Recognize the problem The spittlebug feeds more during rainy periods. It sucks the sap from plants while it injects toxic liquid, causing elongated pale-yellow spots. The leaves become yellow and dry, reducing the sugar content and increasing the fiber. The adult creates many holes in the leaves. Background The sugarcane spittlebug is a sucking insect that is similar to the pasture spittlebug and feeds on sugarcane. The young insect is covered with liquid...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Honduras , November 2012 MM, mountain microorganisms Recognize the problem Several crop diseases and pests can be prevented by fertilizing the plants with MM, which stands for mountain microorganisms. Background Not all fungi and bacteria are harmful. The decomposing litter found in the mountains contains useful microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria, which can fight diseases and crop pests. These microorganisms can be collected and cultivated to be used as controllers of plant problems or...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Pakistan , December 2012 Sugarcane Pyrilla Recognize the problem The sugarcane Pyrilla, also known as as sugarcane leafhopper, is the most destructive sucking pest of sugarcane in Pakistan. Adults are white in colour initially but turn straw colour later on. Young grubs are pale to light brown in colour. Eggs are white, oval-shaped and can easily be seen on the underside of leaves by removing the wax. Both adult and young Pyrillas suck the cell sap from the underside of the leaves, mainly near...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Sugarcane Early shoot borer Recognize the problem The sugarcane early shoot borer is a serious problem in sugarcane. 1-3 month old crops are highly susceptible. The caterpillars of the shoot borer cause dead hearts in young plants. The young plants with dead hearts formed at shoot stage can be pulled out easily. The canes are damaged and also produce a foul odour. The central whorl of leaves dries up in the damaged plants. Background The symptoms described above are caused...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , November 2012 Sugarcane Woolly Aphids Recognize the problem The sugarcane woolly aphid is a pest that has profuse white coloured woolly coating around it. It is often mistaken for a mealybug. The white powder on the ground and leaves confirms the presence of the aphids. If uncontrolled, it spreads very quickly and can cause yield losses of up to 20%. This pest is locally known as “ Panju asuvini ” (Tamil). The nymphs and adults of the aphid remain on the under surface of the...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Uganda , February 2016 Rottboellia cochinchinensis Recognize the problem Family: Poaceae (grass family) Common name: Itchgrass Luganda : Ssezinnyo Sturdy, erect annual grass (up to 4 m), which usually tillers prolifically; characterised by roots that grow from nodes above the soil surface near the base of the plant (‘ brace roots ’); jointed seeds that break-off as they mature, from the top of the spike down; siliceous hairs on the leaf sheath. Leaves: Pale green, leaf-...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Vietnam , March 2016 Mimosa diplotricha Recognize the problem Family: Fabaceae (pea family) Common names: Giant sensitive plant , creeping sensitive plant, nila grass, tropical blackberry. Vietnamese : Trinh nữ móc. Annual, biennial or evergreen, scrambling, climbing, strongly branched shrub, forming dense thickets 2 – 3 (– 6 ) m tall; woody at the base with age; stems green or purplish tinged, 4 – 5 -angled in cross-section, covered with sharp, recurved, yellowish...
Sustainable Management of the Fall Armyworm in Africa FAO Programme for Action 6 October 2017 Executive Summary The invasive insect pest, Fall Armyworm, FAW (Spodoptera frugiperda) continues to spread across Africa, affecting millions of smallholder maize producers across the continent. In addition to its preferred maize, FAW can feed on more than 80 plant species, including rice, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, vegetable crops and cotton. FAW can cause significant yield losses if not well managed or in the absence of natural biological control. Unlike quarantine...
Red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Figure 1. Red palm weevil adult intercepted in the UK on a gourd imported from Sri Lanka © Fera Background Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a highly invasive pest of palms that can have a significant economic, environmental and social impact when introduced into new geographical areas. It is the most important pest of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) in the world and a serious pest of coconut (Cocos nucifera). It is native to southern Asia and Melanesia but since the 1980s it has rapidly expanded its...
Figure 1. Lateral dorsal and ventral views of Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel). Scale bar =1 mm Image © Fera Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) Background The Argentine stem weevil Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an II/A1 EU listed quarantine pest of pasture grasses and cereals that is native to South America. It has since spread across the Pacific region and is most notably a pest in New Zealand having first been detected there in the late 1920’s. In early 2010 a number of dead adult specimens were detected in a grass seed...
BUREAU OF SUGAR EXPERIMENT STATIONS QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA BSS249 PREPAREDNESS FOR BORER INCURSION CHILO INCURSION MANAGEMENT PLAN VERSION 1 by M S Sallam 1 and P G Allsopp 2 PR02008 1BSES, Meringa 2BSES, Bundaberg Disclaimer : Except as required by law and only to the extent so required, none of BSES, its directors, officers or agents makes any representation or warranty, express or implied, as to, or shall in any way be liable (includi ng liability in negligence) directly or indirectly for any loss, damages, costs, expenses or...
Photo 1 . D am age t o s u garc a n e b y t h e p in k su garc a n e b ore r, Sesa m ia g ris e sce n s , b orin g in to th e s te m . Photo 2 . A dult p in k s u garc a n e b ore r, Sesa m ia gris e sce n s. P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets S u garc a n e p in k b ore r ( 2 78) S u garc a n e p in k b ore r ( 2 78) C om mon N am e C om mon N am e P in k s u garc a n e b ore r, R am u s h oot b ore r, s u garc a n e b ore r S cie n tif ic N am e S cie n tif ic N am e Sesa m ia g ris e sce n s D is tr...
Photo 1 . O val s p ots o f v en eer b lo tc h o n t h e mid rib a n d le af b la d e o f s u garc a n e, c a u se d b y Deig h to nie lla p ap uan a. Note h ow t h e o ld er sp ots e n clo se t h e y o unger o nes. P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets S u garc a n e v e n eer b lo tc h ( 2 19) S u garc a n e v e n eer b lo tc h ( 2 19) C om mon N am e C om mon N am e S u garc a n e v e n eer b lo tc h S cie n tif ic N am e S cie n tif ic N am e Deig h to nie lla p ap uan a D is tr ib utio n D is...
Photo 1 . A dult s u garc a n e w eevil b ore r, Rhab dosce lu s o bscu ru s . Photo 2 . A bdom en o f t h e s u garc a n e w eevil bore r, Rhab dosce lu s o bscu ru s , s h ow in g t h e co lo ur p atte rn . P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets S u garc a n e w eevil b ore r ( 2 41) S u garc a n e w eevil b ore r ( 2 41) C om mon N am e C om mon N am e S u garc a n e w eevil b ore r, N ew G uin ea s u garc a n e w eevil, N ew G uin ea c a n e w eevil b ore r. S cie n tif ic N am e S cie n tif ic N am e...
Photo 1 . O val s p ots , p urp le a t f ir s t an d la te r whit e w it h r e d m arg in s, o f w hit e r a sh , Els in oe sa cch ari . P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets P acif ic P ests a n d P ath ogen s - F a ct S h eets S u garc a n e w hit e r a sh ( 2 20) S u garc a n e w hit e r a sh ( 2 20) C om mon N am e C om mon N am e S u garc a n e w hit e r a sh , w hit e s p eck S cie n tif ic N am e S cie n tif ic N am e Els in oe s a cch ari; t h e a se xu al s ta te is Sp hace lo m a s a cch ari. D is tr ib utio n D is tr ib utio n W id esp re...
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G. physocarpus was recorded growing as a weed in pastures and in crops such as sugarcane (Motooka et al., 2003;Flora of China, 2014). It is also an environmental weed affecting principally lowland dry forests, coastal forests and wetlands (DAISIE, 2014;PROTA;2014;USDA-ARS, 2014).
Erect, woody perennial herb or small shrub, up to 3 m tall, but usually around 1.5 m tall. Stems and leaves are covered with star-shaped (stellate) hairs, often many branched at the base. Leaves are simple, alternate, with the upper surface rough and the lower surface grayish, broadly ovate, often with 3-5 shallow, angular lobes at apex, up to 10 cm long, margins finely toothed, bases heart shaped, petioles up to 5 cm long, stipules tiny. Flowers are small, showy, hibiscus-like, solitary on short stalks in leaf axils, subtended by 5 basally united (involucral) bracts up to 0.7 cm, calyx 5-lobed, hairy, 5 petals, rose or pink, darker at the base, rounded, up to 1.5 cm long, stamens fused into an obvious pink column beneath a 5-lobed style. Fruits are small, barbed, spiny capsules, up to 1 cm across, with 5 prominent segments each containing 1 dark brown seed (Francis, 2000, Langeland et al., 2008, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).
U. lobata is a severe weed in pastures, sugarcane fields, coffee plantations, rice plantations, and perennial crop plantations in many countries around the world (Henty and Pritchard, 1973;Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Martin and Pol, 2009;Randall, 2012). It is considered a weed in forest plantations in Bangladesh (Akter and Zuberi, 2009) and India (Chandra-Sekar, 2012). U. lobata is also classified as a noxious environmental weed because it has the potential to alter native plant communities by displacing and out-competing native species, changing community structures, and altering ecological functions (Austin, 1999;Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011;USDA-NRCS;2012).
P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.
Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).
Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).
Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.
Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).
The following description comes from Burger and Huft (1995)
C. argenteus is an herbaceous weed of open sunny sites, pastures, and agricultural lands. It is also a common weed in rice plantations (González, 2000). Because this species grows in seasonally waterlogged areas, its seeds are often dispersed as a contaminant in dried and wet mud (Standley and Steyermark, 1946). Currently, it is listed as invasive only in Cuba, but it is a common weed in dry and wet fields in areas within and outside its native distribution range (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012;USDA-NRCS, 2015).
C. argenteus is a weed of pastures and rice and sugarcane plantations (Standley and Steyermark, 1946;González, 2000;Torres et al., 2010).
Herbaceous, twining or creeping vine, attaining 3 m or more in length. Stems cylindrical, usually reddish, with long, erect, yellowish, non-glandular hairs. Leaves alternate, 5-palmately compound;leaflets 4-14 x 2-6 cm, oblanceolate or elliptical, the apex and base acuminate, the margins entire and ciliate, hispidulous to glabrate on both surfaces. Flowers in dichasial cymes;peduncles shorter than the petioles, hairy;bracts deciduous;sepals subequal or unequal, 1.5-2 cm long, with long, yellowish hairs;corolla funnel-shaped, white, 2.5-3 cm x 4-4.5 cm;five stamens, white;stigma bilobed, white. Fruit capsular, 4-valvate, subglobose, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, light brown, glabrous, surrounded by the persistent sepals. Four seeds per fruit, obtusely triangular, 5-6 mm long, brown, glabrous (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005;Austin et al., 2012).
M. aegyptia can be easily recognized in the field by the 5-digitate leaves with entire leaflets, and the long, erect hairs covering the stems and calyx.
Merremia aegyptia is an annual climbing herb that acts as a pioneer species in disturbed sites in tropical regions. It is considered a weed in most countries where it occurs and it has been included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012). The species is native to tropical America and Africa and listed as invasive in Cuba, India, Australia and Hawaii.
M. aegyptia is a relatively common weed in sugarcane (Brazil, Lesser Antilles, Reunion) and maize fields (Guatemala, Brazil, Nigeria), where it climbs up plants, bending and entangling their stems (Standley and Williams, 1970;Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Lima e Silva et al., 2004;Valery, 2006;Chikoye et al., 2009;Correia et al., 2010;Correia, 2016). It has also been reported in cotton (Cardoso et al., 2010), banana (Isaac et al., 2009), rice (Ismaila et al., 2015), green pepper (Coelho et al., 2013), muskmelon (Teófilo et al., 2012), yam (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991) and coffee plantations (Gavilanes et al., 1988).
S. verticillata is an annual, or more usually perennial. Stems straggling, to 100 cm or more, glabrous or nearly so, usually erect and simple or sparsely branched, often copiously branched from the base, usually 40 cm high or less, the stems tetragonous. Stipule sheath very short, the setae about 1.5 mm long;leaves glabrous, sessile or nearly so, linear or lanceo-linear, mostly 1.5-4 cm long and 1.5-6 mm broad, commonly 1-veined, often with fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils. Flowers white, very small in sessile clusters at the upper stem nodes or more usually terminal, then the heads subtended by 2 or 4 leaf-like bracts. Hypanthium pilose above, the 2 sepals narrowly triangular, 1.5 mm long or less. Corolla of 4 petals, 3 mm long, hispidulous outside at the apex, the lobes about equalling the tube;anthers exserted. Capsule 2.5 mm long;seeds reddish brown about 1 mm long (PIER, 2016).
S. verticillata is a scrambling annual or perennial native to the Americas. It has been introduced widely but sporadically across Asia and the Pacific and to tropical Australia. It can grow on a wide range of land types but often requires disturbance to establish. S. verticillata can form large clumps which can smother other vegetation. In its native range it has been recorded as a significant weed of agricultural crops, for example in the Caribbean it is a problem of sugarcane, vegetables and root crops (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991). In addition to this, on St Helena, it is among the exotic plants threatening the critically endangered fern, Pteris adscensionis.
In a number of countries S. verticillata has been shown to have a negative impact on agricultural crops such as Coffea arabica, Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Saccharum officinarum, Theobroma cacao, Vigna unguiculata Manihot esculenta and Zea mays (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Holm, 1997;Johnson, 1997;Marques et al., 2011;Cherigo et al., 2012).
The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
Erechtites hieraciifolius is a fast-growing, annual herb that is native to North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. It is recorded as an environmental and agricultural weed in areas both within and outside its native distribution. Mature plants can produce large amounts of wind-dispersed seed, facilitating the colonisation of new areas. It is adapted to grow in a wide range of disturbed anthropogenic habitats and can outcompete other species to form dense populations. It may also spread as a seed contaminant of crops. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Hong Kong, Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands, French Polynesia, Palau, US Minor Outlying Islands, New Zealand and Hungary. It is also considered a potential weed in Australia, where it is under quarantine.
E. hieraciifolius has been listed as a weed of the following crops: oat (Avena sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), onion (Allium cepa), carrot (Daucus carota), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum);it is also a weed of fodder crops (e.g. Medicago sativa) and of mixed pastures (Darbyshire et al., 2012).
From PROTA (2013)
E. hypericifolia is a herbaceous shrub native to the Americas. It is regarded as an invasive weed in many of the Pacific Islands in which it occurs, especially Hawaii, where it is rated ‘high risk’. It is also a weed in Singapore and Taiwan, though the situations in which it is causing problems are not well documented. It is recognized as a weed in soyabean, sugar cane and cotton in some countries and is presumably also threatening native flora in others.
E. hypericifolia is recorded as a weed in soyabean, sugarcane and cotton.
Herbaceous, twining or creeping vine, attaining up to 6 m in length. Stems cylindrical, glandular- pubescent. Leaves alternate, 5-palmately compound;leaflets 1.5-7.5 x 0.7-3.5 cm, elliptical, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the apex obtuse, the base acute or decurrent, the margins entire, undulate or dentate, glabrate or glandular-pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers in simple or double dichasial cymes;peduncles longer than the petioles;bracts persistent, linear to subulate;sepals subequal or unequal, 1-1.5 cm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate at the apex, glandular-pubescent;corolla funnel-shaped, white or sometimes pink, with or without a purple centre, 1.5-3 cm x 3-4 cm;stamens 5, white, sometimes with lilac anthers;stigma bilobed, white. Fruit capsular, 4-valvate, globose, 6-8 mm in diameter, light brown, glabrous, surrounded by the persistent sepals. Seeds 4 per fruit, ellipsoid, 5-6 mm long, dark brown, lanate (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005;Austin et al., 2012).
Merremia cissoides is a climbing weed native to tropical America that has been introduced to several Old World countries, presumably as an ornamental. It typically grows in disturbed areas and has been reported as a weed of several crops within its native range. However, it is not as widespread and common as other weedy species of Merremia. In several countries outside its native range, its occurrence has only been documented from one or few herbarium specimens. Nonetheless, the species is considered to be increasingly naturalized in the Old World tropics. It is invasive in Florida (USA) and Cuba.
The species has been reported as a weed of sugarcane fields in Brazil (Perim et al., 2009;Correia and Kronka Júnior, 2010) and has also been reported in maize (Tavella et al., 2015), soybean (Timossi and Durigan, 2006), eucalyptus (Carbonari et al., 2010) and coffee plantations (Gavilanes et al., 1988).
D. sissoo is a medium to large, deciduous, long-lived tree with a spreading crown and thick branches. It attains a height of up to 30 m and a girth of 2.4 m;the bole is often crooked. In Rawalpindi district, Pakistan, it also occurs in the form of a straggling bush at an altitude of 1500 m, clinging to crevices in the sides of sandstone cliffs (Troup, 1921). The bark is thick, rough and grey, and has shallow, broad, longitudinal fissures exfoliating in irregular woody strips and scales (Luna, 1996). D. sissoo develops a long taproot from an early age and has numerous lateral ramifying roots (Hocking, 1993). The leaves are compound, imparipinnate and alternate, with rachis 3.5-8 cm long, swollen at the base. There are 3-5 leaflets, each 3.5-9 x 3-7 cm;leaflets alternate, broadly ovate, conspicuously and abruptly cuspidate at the apex, rounded at the base, entire, coriaceous, pubescent when young and glabrous when mature. The terminal leaflet is larger than the others, and there are 8-12 pairs of veins in the leaflets (Parker, 1956;Luna, 1996). The inflorescence of D. sissoo is an axillary panicle 3.5-7.5 cm long, with small flowers, 7-9 mm long, white to yellowish-white with a pervasive fragrance, sessile, papilionaceous and hermaphrodite. The standard petal is narrow at the base and forms a low claw;wing and keel petals are oblong. Pods are 4.5-10 x 0.7-1.5 cm, linear-oblong, indehiscent, stipitate, glabrous, apex acute, reticulate against the seeds, and usually 1-4 seeded. Seeds are kidney-shaped, variable in size (8-10 x 4-5.5 mm), pale brown, brown to brownish-black, reniform, compressed, with papery testa (Parker, 1956;Singh, 1989;Luna, 1996).
D. caricosum is a perennial, stoloniferous grass. Culms tufted at nodes of stolons, geniculately ascending, 30–60 cm tall, nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf sheaths compressed, keeled, shorter than internodes;leaf blades flat, 15–20 cm × 2.5–5 mm, glabrous or with a few hairs at base, margins smooth or scabrid, apex acuminate;ligule less than 1 mm, margin ciliate. Inflorescence terminal;peduncle glabrous;racemes (1–)2–4, 2.5–5 cm, with 1–3 pairs of homogamous spikelets. Sessile spikelet 3–3.5 mm;lower glume obovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, papery, 8–12-veined, glabrous or often sparsely hirsute on lower back, slightly glossy, margins shortly ciliate, keels winged, apex rounded;upper glume ciliate above middle, apex obtuse;awn 1.5–2.5 cm, weakly geniculate. Caryopsis obovate-oblong. Pedicelled spikelet many-veined, resembling sessile (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).
D. caricosum has been intentionally introduced as a perennial grazing pasture with excellent ground cover. Now, it can be found widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions (Cook et al., 2005;FAO, 2015). It has escaped from cultivation and has become a weed and invasive grass in Cuba, Guam, New Caledonia, and Fiji (MacKee, 1994;Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012);PIER, 2015). In Cuba, it is widespread across the islands. In Fiji, it covers large areas being very common especially in the dry zones, in pastures, canefields, waste places, and along roadsides (Smith, 1979). D. caricosum is a fast-growing gregarious grass that competes aggressively with other plants including other weeds (Cook et al., 2005).
D. caricosum is a common weed with negative impact in pastures and sugarcane fields (Smith, 1979).
M. eruciformis is an annual terrestrial herb growing up to 45 cm tall and forming dense clusters of 10-60 cm long reclining and slender stems, with softly hairy culms rooting at the lower nodes. Stem internodes are hollow.
Moorochlora eruciformis is an annual herb, fodder crop and common agricultural weed, native to Africa, Asia and the Mediterranean;it has also been introduced to the Americas and Oceania. Crop seed contamination is a possible pathway for dispersal of this species. It is reported as invasive in Cuba, Spain and Australia as well as islands in Oceania. Despite this, there is limited information available about the economic and environmental impacts of this species or its dispersal potential.
It is a common weed species in cultivated fields, particularly associated with maize, sugarcane and coffee crops (Holzner and Numata, 1982;Blanca et al., 2009;Afridi et al., 2015).
The following information is adapted from Puff (1991), Nelson (1996) and Wagner et al. (1999), and modified by the datasheet author using plant specimens from warm temperate (Jacono 952, FLAS) and subtropical (Howell 1285, FLAS) regions of Florida.
Detection of P. foetida in the field or during inspection at ports of entry can easily be made based on the following features: a slender vine with opposite, oblanceolate, sometimes nearly heart-shaped, soft green leaves having a stipular tab on the stem between the petioles, the leaves producing a foul-smelling sulfurous odour when bruised, and fruits, if present, the size of a peppercorn, with a thin, brittle skin orange to brown in colour and splitting to release no more than two seeds.
A perennial vine of South-East and East Asian origin, Paederia foetida has characteristically opposite, soft and offensively smelling leaves, and produces solitary flowers and globose fruits in a ‘double scorpioid’ inflorescence. Vines trail across the ground, clamber over shrubs and twine into tree canopies to form curtains of dense vegetation that block light, provide undue weight, and offer a pathway for fire, often leading to the death of the host. P. foetida was introduced during the 19th century to the oceanic Mascarene and Hawaiian islands and later to the continental USA (Florida). It is regionally problematic in Florida where its distribution stands to expand internally and to other southern states. It is ranked by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council as a Category I (high impact) invasive species, invading and impacting natural areas, and is regulated as a noxious weed in both Florida and Alabama. In the Mascarene Islands it is a serious agricultural weed, and has recently become invasive in forest parks and disturbed urban sites in southern China.
P. foetida has been and remains a principal weed of sugarcane on the island of Mauritius (Evans, 1947;Roghegouste, 1958). Changes over time in cultural practices, such as green cane trash blanketing, have favoured its more recent proliferation in sugarcane crops (Seeruttun et al., 2005). It is also well entrenched as a weed and contaminant in the Hawaiian nursery industry for ornamental foliage plants (Pemberton and Pratt, 2002).
P. foetida becomes a serious horticultural weed when it moves into lawns and yards in suburban Florida where little can be done to control it. Green, thin and pliable, its fast growing stems creep into lawn grass safely below the circulating blade of a lawn mower. The stems readily anchor themselves by rooting at the nodes that are continuously in contact with the ground. Stems can run from lawns into shrubbery, from where, after taking many twining turns around basal branches, the vines twist their way to the top of bushes and hedges, blanketing their surfaces and moving onwards to find the next vertical support.
S. cayennensis is a perennial evergreen herb or subshrub which can reach heights of 2.5 m. It has a woody glabrous stem with several branches. Leaves opposite, membranous, elliptic to broadly elliptic or ovate, 4-8 cm long, 2-4.5 cm wide, upper surface rugose, both surfaces glabrous or occasionally lower surface with a few scattered hairs usually along the veins and margins, margins sharply and coarsely serrate, the teeth conspicuously divergent, apex acute, base cuneate, petioles 0.5-2 cm long. Spikes slender, rachis flexuous to erect or somewhat nodding, 14-40 cm long, ca. 2.5 mm in diameter, the furrows somewhat shallow, nearly as wide as the rachis, bracts lanceolate, ca. 7 mm long;calyx ca. 7 mm long, the teeth subequal;corolla usually dark purplish blue with a paler center, the tube 7-8 mm long (Wagner et al., 1999).
S. cayennensis is a shrub native to South and Central America and the Caribbean. It was introduced widely introduced into several tropical countries around the world as an ornamental species due to its attractive blue flowers, but in some countries it has become invasive. S. cayennensis has a wide environmental tolerance and often invades disturbed areas where it can outcompete native flora. It is invasive in many Pacific islands and is regarded as a noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia and is increasing in abundance in Florida, USA. According to a risk assessment this species is regarded as being highly invasive (score 20 = high risk) (PIER, 2015).
S. cayennensis may outcompete smaller native plant species and crops dedicated to livestock are often affected by smothering. In Australia, this species is commonly found as a weed of pastures and sugarcane (Saccharum species) (DAFF, 2014).