Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)

Description

 

Resources

7 resources available. Click on the image to preview, click on the publisher link to download.

Pruning of cocoa

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Published at: plantwise.org

Exotic pest alert: giant African snail

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Exotic Pest Alert: Giant African snail April 2015 Primefact 1394 1st edition Plant Biosecurity and Product Integrity, Orange Giant African snail (Achatina fulica) is an exotic plant pest not established on Australia’s mainland This snail is a serious threat to Australia’s environment If found it must be reported promptly to the Exotic Plant Pest Hotline 1800 084 881 Giant African snail Giant African snail (GAS) is one of the world’s largest and most damaging land snails. Giant African snail prefers warm tropical conditions. It can survive temperatures lower...

Published at: dpi.nsw.gov.au

Cocoa pod borer (CPB)

Published at: icco.org

cocoa sunscald cherelle wilt 137

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Photo 1. Branch dieback and yellowing of the leaves due to sunscald of cocoa caused by exposure - lack of shade - and poor nutrition. Photo 2. Severe branch dieback due to lack of shade and adequate nutrition. Photo 3. Healthy young pods, or cherelles, before wilting. Photo 4. Cherelles or young cocoa pods have "wilted" naturally, died, and blackened due to infection by fungi and other decay-causing organisms. Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Pacific Pests and Pathogens - Fact Sheets Cocoa sunscald...

Published at: pestnet.org

cocoa vascular streak dieback 223

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Photo 1. A branch affected by vascular streak dieback, Oncobasidium theobromae, where the leaves have mostly fallen. Photo 2. Yellow leaves with green spots, and abnormal development of axillary buds, on a cocoa branch affected by vascular streak dieback, Oncobasidium theobromae. Photo 3. White sporulating growth of the vascular streak dieback fungus, Oncobasidium theobromae, on a cocoa branch. Photo 4. Cocoa leaf scar showing discoloured vascular tissues (xylem and phloem), a characteristic sign of infection by the fungus, Oncobasidium theobromae. Pacific Pests and Pathogens -...

Published at: pestnet.org

cocoa

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Organic Farming in the Tropics and Subtropics Exemplary Description of 20 Crops Cocoa © Naturland e.V. – 1st edition 2000 These cultivation guidelines have been published by Naturland e.V. with the kind support of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit mbH (GTZ, German Agency for Technical Cooperation) financed by the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit (BMZ, Federal Ministry for Development Cooperation). The cultivation recommendations at hand for 20 crops of the tropics and subtropics being of...

Published at: infonet-biovision.org

naturland compendium organic cocoa 0

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1 How to Grow Organic Cocoa An illustrated handbook on organic principles of cocoa production2 Index Introduction3 Botany3 Worldwide organically cocoa production4 Uses of cocoa4 Principles of organic cocoa production5 Agroforestry6 Advantages of organic cocoa production10 The Naturland Standards11 Site requirements of cocoa12 Growing cocoa from seeds and seedlings .12 Starting a new plantation13 Nutrient cycling on the plantation15 Biological methods of plant protection15 Diseases16 Pests17 Plantation maintenance18 Harvest and post harvest steps19 Processing of the beans20 Packaging for...

Published at: infonet-biovision.org

Names

Theobroma cacao in differrent languages.

Theobroma pentagona
Cocoa
Cacao
Koko
Kakao
கொக்கோ
Kakao
可可树
Какао
Theobroma cacao
Tikrasis kakavmedis
唂咕樹
可可樹
کوکو رکھ
Kako
Caco
കൊക്കോ
Koko
Cacavo
Какава
Kakaobaum
Arborele de cacao
Cacao
Kakaobuum
Какаовац
كاكاو
Kakaovník pravý
Prawy kakawowc
Kakaokoks
קאקאא בוים
카카오
Kakaw
Cacau
Kakaovac
Cacaoboom
درخت کاکائو
Kakaoboom
Chi-ku-la̍t-châng
Cocoa
Le=Kakouboom
ကကေးအိုပင်
Kakao ağacı
Kakawo
Կակաո
کوکو درخت
Cacaoyer
کاکائو آغاجی
カカオ
Cacahuacuahuitl
კაკაო
โกโก้
Kuvuasu
কোকোয়া
Kakaotre
Κακαόδεντρο
Какаово дърво
Harilik kakaopuu
Kakaowiec właściwy
קקאו
Kakao arbola
Kaakaopuu
कोको
Mkakao
Kakaoboom

Q&A

Description

Adult Papuana huebneri are black, shiny and 15-20 mm long. The size and number of head horns in taro beetles varies between species and sexes;P. huebneri has only one small horn, which is larger in the male than the female (Macfarlane, 1987a).

Recognition

Taro beetles can be detected by: (1) digging up wilting taro plants and examining them for signs of damage;(2) using light traps, particularly on moonless and rainy nights;and (3) sampling wild plant species (e.g. banana, sugarcane and grasses such as Paspalum spp. and Brachiaria mutica) at breeding sites, especially along river banks, on rotting logs and in compost heaps (Carmichael et al., 2008;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).

Symptons

Adult taro beetles burrow into the soft trunks, plant bases and corms of a range of plants, including taro, making large holes or cavities up to 2 cm in diameter (McGlashan, 2006). The feeding tunnels and associated frass may be visible in infested corms (Biosecurity Australia, 2011). The amount of damage to the crop depends on the age of the plants when attacked and the density of infestation. Feeding activity can cause wilting and even the death of affected plants, particularly in young plants if the beetles bore into the growing points. Older plants infested by beetles grow slowly and a few or all of the leaves wilt (TaroPest, 2015). In severely damaged plants tunnels may run together to form large cavities, making the damaged corms more susceptible to fungal infections (Macfarlane, 1987a;Onwueme, 1999). Similar symptoms of damage are caused to other root crops, e.g. sweet potato, yams and potato (McGlashan, 2006). Taro beetles can ring-bark young tea, cocoa and coffee plants in the field and bore into seedlings of oil palm and cocoa (Aloalii et al., 1993).

Impact

Papuana huebneri is one of at least 19 species of known taro beetles native to the Indo-Pacific region;it is native to Papua New Guinea, the Molucca Islands in Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and has been introduced to Kiribati. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important crop in these countries;high infestations of P. huebneri can completely destroy taro corms, and low infestations can reduce their marketability. The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma chamissonis [ Cyrtosperma merkusii ]), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions. Infestations of taro beetles, including P. huebneri, have led to the abandonment of taro and swamp taro pits in the Solomon Islands and Kiribati, resulting in the loss of genetic diversity of these crops and undermining cultural traditions. P. huebneri also attacks a variety of other plants, although usually less seriously. Management today relies on an integrated pest management strategy, combining cultural control measures with the use of insecticides and the fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

Hosts

Papuana huebneri is a pest of taro (Colocasia esculenta;known as ‘dalo’ in Fijian;McGlashan, 2006) (Masamdu, 2001;International Business Publications, 2010), which is grown primarily as a subsistence crop in many Pacific Island countries, including Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where P. huebneri is found (Aloalii et al., 1993). Taro also has value in gift-giving and ceremonial activities (Braidotti, 2006;Lal, 2008). The beetle also attacks swamp taro or babai (Cyrtosperma merkusii or Cyrtosperma chamissonis), which is grown for consumption on ceremonial occasions (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1974;Dharmaraju, 1982;International Business Publications, 2010).
Other plants attacked by Papuana huebneri include tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium), bananas (Musa spp.), Canna lily (Canna indica), pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), the bark of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao), the fern Angiopteris evecta (Masamdu, 2001), and occasionally the Chinese cabbage Brassica chinensis [ Brassica rapa ] (International Business Publications, 2010).
Species of Papuana behave similarly to each other and feed on the same host plants (TaroPest, 2015). For taro beetles in general, primary host plants other than taro include giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhizzos), Amorphophallus spp., the fern Angiopteris evecta, banana (Musa spp.) and tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium). Secondary hosts include pineapple (Ananas comosus), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), betel nut (Areca catechu), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), canna lily (Canna indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), Commelina spp., Crinum spp., yam (Dioscorea spp.), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Marattia spp., pandanus (Pandanus odoratissimus [ Pandanus utilis or P. odorifer ]), Saccharum spp. including sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and Saccharum edule [ Saccharum spontaneum var. edulis ], and potato (Solanum tuberosum);they occasionally ring bark young tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea spp.) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants (Macfarlane, 1987b;Aloalii et al., 1993;Masamdu and Simbiken, 2001;Masamdu, 2001;Tsatsia and Jackson, 2014;TaroPest, 2015).


Source: cabi.org
Description

S. verticillata is an annual, or more usually perennial. Stems straggling, to 100 cm or more, glabrous or nearly so, usually erect and simple or sparsely branched, often copiously branched from the base, usually 40 cm high or less, the stems tetragonous. Stipule sheath very short, the setae about 1.5 mm long;leaves glabrous, sessile or nearly so, linear or lanceo-linear, mostly 1.5-4 cm long and 1.5-6 mm broad, commonly 1-veined, often with fascicles of smaller leaves in the axils. Flowers white, very small in sessile clusters at the upper stem nodes or more usually terminal, then the heads subtended by 2 or 4 leaf-like bracts. Hypanthium pilose above, the 2 sepals narrowly triangular, 1.5 mm long or less. Corolla of 4 petals, 3 mm long, hispidulous outside at the apex, the lobes about equalling the tube;anthers exserted. Capsule 2.5 mm long;seeds reddish brown about 1 mm long (PIER, 2016).

Impact

S. verticillata is a scrambling annual or perennial native to the Americas. It has been introduced widely but sporadically across Asia and the Pacific and to tropical Australia. It can grow on a wide range of land types but often requires disturbance to establish. S. verticillata can form large clumps which can smother other vegetation. In its native range it has been recorded as a significant weed of agricultural crops, for example in the Caribbean it is a problem of sugarcane, vegetables and root crops (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991). In addition to this, on St Helena, it is among the exotic plants threatening the critically endangered fern, Pteris adscensionis.

Hosts


In a number of countries S. verticillata has been shown to have a negative impact on agricultural crops such as Coffea arabica, Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Saccharum officinarum, Theobroma cacao, Vigna unguiculata Manihot esculenta and Zea mays (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991;Holm, 1997;Johnson, 1997;Marques et al., 2011;Cherigo et al., 2012).


Source: cabi.org