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Grapevine downy mildew

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Afghanistan , 2013 Grapevine Downy mildew Recognize the problem This disease can be seen all over the green parts of the plant. Areas affected first become yellow then turn more purple. Eventually, the leaves dry out and gradually fall from the tree. Most of the time this disease attacks the grape clusters, causing the fruit to dry out and stay small. After the leaves have begun to fall, the grape clusters will follow. Background This fungus overwinters as spores in fallen leaves. As the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Thrips attack of beans

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bangladesh , September 2013 Thrips attack of Beans Recognize the problem Thrips are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. They are plant feeders that feed by puncturing their host and sucking out the cell contents. Thrips scar leaf, flower, or fruit surfaces and can cause leaves to become papery and distorted. Infested terminals may become rolled, and drop their leaves prematurely. Discoloured or distorted plant tissue and black specks of faeces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that...

Published at: plantwise.org

Powdery mildew in green gram

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Powdery mildew in Green gram Recognize the problem A powder appears in patches on leaves and other green parts of the plant. This powder is white but later turns a dull colour. Gradually, the powdery patches grow and become circular until they also cover the lower surface of the leaf. In severe infections, leaves turn yellow and fall early. Severely affected parts shrivel and become distorted. The disease causes forced maturity and therefore reduced crop yields. Background...

Published at: plantwise.org

Powdery mildew of grapevine

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Afghanistan , October 2012 Powdery mildew of grapevine Recognize the problem Powdery mildew is a fungal disease. It attacks all parts of the plant including leaves, fruits and vines. The symptoms include a dusty appearance of whitish or greenish-white powdery patches on the underside of the leaves. In severe cases, green leaves curl upwards and turn white or yellow. Shoots are also susceptible to disease. Infected buds may produce fewer fruits of reduced size. Fruits have rusty spots on the...

Published at: plantwise.org

Pest control products recommended for use on grapes in British Columbia

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1Group number for resistance management (see p. 7-6, Best Practices Guide for Grapes ) 2Re-entry interval on the label (see p. 7-2). Re-entry interval s for grapes usually vary widely by activity. See label for details where a range of re -entry tim es are shown. An asterisk(*) indicates that no re -entry is shown on the label, but the WorkSafe BC re -entry interval may apply and is shown. 3Pre -harvest interval (see p. 7-13). 1 + Pest Control Products Recommended for Use on Grapes in British Columbia Table 1. INSECTICIDES and MITICIDES...

Published at: www2.gov.bc.ca

Grape leafroll disease

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Published at: ecommons.cornell.edu

Thrips on grapes

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Published at: plantwise.org

Nematodes

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

UC Management Guidelines for Phomopsis Cane and Leafspot on Grape

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

UC Management Guidelines for Botrytis Bunch Rot on Grape

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

Grapevine red blotch disease

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Published at: ecommons.cornell.edu

Otiorhynchus lavandusv9

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Otiorhynchus lavandus subsp . lavandus Background In August 2016, specimens of a weevil species belonging to the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) collecte d from the site of a commercial soft fruit producer in England were sent to Fera Science Ltd. for confirmatory diagnosis. Large numbers of these weevils had been collected , together with O. sulcatus (Fabricius) (black vine weevil) , earlier in the summer in a crop of Rubus idaeus (raspberry) growing under protected cultivation, and foliar damage was observed. The unknown weevil did not...

Published at: planthealthportal.defra.gov.uk

pnopossum

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The opossum (Didelphis virginiana ) is the only native North American mar - supial. Marsupials are distinguished by their abdominal pouch used for carrying their young. The opossum is not native to California but was introduced in San Jose in 1910 from the east coast of the United States and has now become well estab - lished throughout much of the state. IDENTIFICATION An opossum is about the size of a house cat, has coarse grayish fur, a pointed face, and hairless, rounded ears (Figure 1). With its long hairless prehensile tail, the opossum can carry things such as nesting...

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

pnraccoons

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Integrated Pest Management In and Around the Home R accoons Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2014 P EST N OTES Publication 74116 The adult raccoon ( Procyon lotor) is a stocky mammal about 2 to 3 feet long and weighs 7 to 30 pounds. It is dis - tinctively marked with a black “mask” over the eyes and is heavily furred with alternating light and dark rings around its tail (Figure 1). Raccoons are active year round but may take cover in dens during periods of severe winter weather. BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Raccoons prefer wooded areas near water and natural habitats...

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

pnoleanderleaf

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O LEANDER L EAF S CORCH P EST N OTES Publication 7480 University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources updated April 2008 Integrated Pest Management for Professional Landscapers and Home Gardeners Oleander leaf scorch is a relatively new disease found mainly in south- e rn California. It is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa , which is the same species (although a differ- e nt strain) that causes Pierce’s dis- e ase of grapevines and almond leaf scorch. The strain of X. fastidiosa that causes oleander leaf scorch will not cause Pierce’s...

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

pnfieldbindweed

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Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis , (Fig. 1) is a native of Eurasia that first was documented in California in 1884 in San Diego. By the first quarter of the twentieth century, field bindweed was proclaimed the worst weed in California and many other Western states. It most likely arrived in the United States as a contaminant in farm and garden seeds. However, because of its flowers and climbing nature, some seeds were probably planted as ornamentals, as a ground cover, in hanging baskets, or on trellises. Field bindweed has been given many names including perennial...

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

2060

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PUBLICATION 4-H-2060e 4-H POULTRY SHOW- MANSHIP NATIONAL STANDARD The authors are: Francine A. Bradley and Ralph A. Ernst University of California Cooperative Extension Poultry Specialists University of California, Davis Photographs by Suzanne Paisley Acknowledgment The authors thank the California State Fair for providing the venue for many of this publication’s photo- graphs. While frequent mention is made to 4-H in this publication, the national standard for poultry showmanship has been successfully used with youth involved in FFA and independent livestock projects. The...

Published at: anrcatalog.ucanr.edu

pmggrape

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Publication 3448 • Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest. grapes.html • UC Statew ide Integrated Pest Management Program Grape April 2019 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTU RE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Table Grape Year-Round IPM Program (Reviewed 7/15) ....................................................................................................................... v Wine and Raisin Grape Year-Round IPM Pro gram...

Published at: ipm.ucanr.edu

IN37100

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EENY-214 Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) 1 M. C. Thomas, J. B. Heppner, R. E. Woodruff, H. V. Weems, G. J. Steck, and T. R. Fasulo 2 1. This document is EENY-214 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars 4, 230 and 273, updated for this publication), one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2001. Revised October 2007, June and September 2010, and October 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu . This document is also...

Published at: edis.ifas.ufl.edu

Eupoecilia ambiguella high

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1 Screening Aid This CAPS (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey) screening aid produced for and distributed by\ :USDA-APHIS-PPQ National Identification Services (NIS) This and other identification resources are available at: http://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/taxonomic_services Todd M. Gilligan 1, Marc E. Epstein 2, and Steven C. Passoa 3 1) Identification Technology Program (ITP) / Colorado State University, USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Science...

Published at: idtools.org

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Names

Vitis vinifera in differrent languages.

Grapevine
Nho
Artgun
Angunx
Tra pèang baay chum
Sa-pyit
Ubas
Auggut
Buah anggur
Vindrue
Vinha
Bortermő szőlő
Vinha
Ayitâ
Chiqap uwas
شراب انگور
Win
Vide
Vinska trta
Almindelig vin
Vigne
Vit
Winowy prut
Кәдімгі жүзім
釀酒葡萄
Wijnstok
Viță de vie
גפן היין
Vegne
Виноград культурный
Խաղող մշակովի
Kālepi
Vinič hroznorodý
Mədəni üzüm
انگور
Viiniköynnös
كرمة نبيذية
திராட்சை
Виноград справжній
Tikrasis vynmedis
Réva vinná
Vitis vinifera
포도
Wäirief
Лоза
Винова лоза
Weinrebe
Вінаград культурны
Vinranka
Европейска винена лоза
Vinova loza
Ekte vinranke
ヨーロッパブドウ
Winorośl właściwa
مدنی اۆزوم
ევროპული ვაზი
Vitis vinifera

Q&A

Vitis vinifera
Description

W. sinensis is a woody, deciduous vine that can climb to 20 m. The bark on older vines is dark grey with light colored dots (lenticels). Vines twine clockwise (left to right). Leaves are alternate and compound with 7-13 leaflets. Leaflets are attached opposite to each other along the leaf stalk. Leaflets have wavy edges and long, tapering tips. Young leaves are densely covered in silky hairs, but are almost hairless when mature. Grape-like clusters of fragrant lavender to purple flowers hang from the vines, usually flowering as the leaves emerge in spring. Flowers are attached to the cluster by a short stalk. Pubescence on the flower is conjoined to the upper third of inner face of the standard (or banner) petal. Flower clusters (racemes) are 12Ð35 cm long. Flattened pods 6-15 cm long and 2-3 cm wide are velvety. Pods contain 1 to 8 flat, round, brown seeds each 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter (Trusty et al., 2007a;Miller et al., 2010).


Source: cabi.org
Vitis vinifera
Description

Kudzu is a perennial climbing vine that produces very large tubers up to 2 m long and 18-45 cm wide that can weigh as much as 180 kg on old plants. Stems or branches are strong, approximately 0.6-2.5 cm in diameter and up to 30 m in length. They can grow up to 25 cm per day or 18 m per growing season, and produce root crowns where nodes contact soil. Leaves are pinnately trifoliate, 8-20 cm long and 5-19 cm wide with leaflets ovate to orbicular and unlobed to trilobed. Leaves are pale green above and light to greyish green below. Purple to blue flowers, that smell of grapes, are borne on a mostly unbranched inflorescence 10-25 cm long. Seeds are borne in golden-haired, brown, flattened, oblong pods, 4-13 cm long and 0.6-1.3 cm wide. The seeds, visible through the pod, are flattened, ovoid and reddish brown with a black mosaic pattern. They are approximately 4-5 mm long by 4 mm wide and 2 mm thick (van der Maesen, 1985). For a more detailed description and a key to the three varieties, see van der Maesen (1985).


Source: cabi.org
Description

P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.

Hosts

P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.

Biological Control
The use of insect and fungal pathogens and the exploitation of allelopathic plants is considered by Kaur et al. (2014) as the most economical and practical way to manage the infestations of the species. Biological control has been, and continues to be, considered the best long-term or sustainable solution to the parthenium weed problem in Australia (Haseler, 1976, McFadyen, 1992) and because of the vast areas and the socio-economics involved, this approach has also been proposed for India (Singh, 1997). South Africa was the first country in Africa to implement a biological control program against the species in 2003 (Rubaba et al., 2017). Four host-specific biocontrol agents have been released sequentially since 2010 after evaluation of their suitability, with variable establishment and spread (Strathie et al., 2016).;The use of insects as biocontrol agents had been tried in various countries (Kaur et al., 2014). Searches for, and evaluation of, coevolved natural enemies have been conducted in the neotropics since 1977. So far, nine insect species and two fungal pathogens have been introduced into Australia as classical biological control agents (Julien, 1992, McClay et al., 1995, Navie et al., 1996, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Callander and Dhileepan (2016) report that most of these agents have become established and have proven effective in central Queensland, but that the weed is now spreading further into southern Queensland where the biocontrol agents are not present. Several of the agents are therefore now being redistributed into south and southeast Queensland.;The rust fungus, Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola, is a prominent natural enemy in the semi-arid uplands of Mexico (Evans, 1987a, b), but since its release in Queensland in 1992, climatic conditions have been largely unfavourable (Evans, 1997a, b). It was accidentally introduced into Kenya (Evans, 1987a) and Ethiopia in mid-altitudes (1400-2500 masl) with disease incidence up to 100% in some locations (Taye et al., 2002a). Screening of another rust species (Puccinia melampodii) from Mexico was carried out (Evans, 1997b, Seier et al., 1997) and released in Australia in the summer of 1999/2000 (PAG, 2000). This fungus was later renamed Puccinia xanthii Schwein. var. parthenii-hysterophorae Seier, H.C.Evans & ç.Romero (Seier et al., 2009). Retief et al. (2013) report on specificity testing carried out in quarantine facilities in South Africa, and conclude that the fungus is suitable for release as a biological control agent of P. hysterophorus in South Africa. The authors suggest that this species has more potential for biocontrol in South Africa than Puccinia abrupta, which may have little impact in the low-altitude, high-temperature areas of the country where the weed is spreading.;In India, the mycoherbicide potential of plurivorous fungal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia,Myrothecium and Sclerotium, has and is being evaluated (Mishra et al., 1995, Evans, 1997a). Parthenium phyllody disease caused by the phytoplasma of faba bean phyllody group (FBP) was reported to reduce seed production by 85% (Taye et al., 2002b) and is being evaluated for use as a biological control agent in Ethiopia. Kaur and Aggarwal (2017) have tested an Alternaria isolate found on the weed, and report that it is worth investigating as a mycoherbicide for control of parthenium. Metabolites of Alternaria japonica and filtrates of Alternaria macrospora have caused significant damage to Parthenium (Kaur et al., 2015, Javaid et al., 2017).;Among the established insect biocontrol agents, the leaf-feeding beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata, the stem-galling moth, Epiblema strenuana, the stem-boring beetle, Listronotus setosipennis, and the seed-feeding weevil, Smicronyx lutulentus, are proving to be the most successful when climatic factors are favourable (McFadyen, 1992, Dhileepan and McFadyen, 1997, Evans, 1997a). Some control of parthenium weed has also been achieved in India with Z. bicolorata (Jayanth and Visalakshy, 1994, Singh, 1997, Sarkate and Pawar, 2006), although there has been controversy concerning its taxonomy and host specificity (Jayanth et al., 1993, Singh, 1997). Shabbir et al. (2016) reported that Z. bicolorata was most effective when applied in higher densities and at early growth stages of the weed. The distribution of this leaf beetle in South Asia was investigated by Dhileepan and Senaratne (2009), when it was present in many states in India, and in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Shrestha et al. (2011) reported that Z. bicolorata arrived in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal in August 2010, and that by September it had spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, although damage to the weed was only appreciable at one site.;Z. bicolorata has been seen attacking sunflowers in India and the use of Epiblema strenuata has not been effective, as it was found affecting Guizotia abyssinica crops (Kaur et al., 2014). More recently, Z. bicolorata and L. setosipennis have been released in South Africa and S. lutulentus is being evaluated under quarantine. Before approval as a biocontrol agent in South Africa in 2013, extensive testing suggested that Z. bicolorata would not become a pest of sunflowers in the country (McConnachie, 2015).;The use of antagonistic, competitor plants, such as Cassia spp. and Tagetes spp., has been recommended to control and replace P. hysterophorus in India (Mahadevappa and Ramaiah, 1988, Evans, 1997a, Mahadevappa, 1997, Singh, 1997). In Australia, Bowen et al. (2007) tested a number of grass and legume species against the growth of parthenium weed plants and identified further species that could suppress weed growth. Recently, Khan et al. (2013) tested a number of native and introduced pasture species and identified several of them to be suppressive against parthenium weed in both glasshouse and field conditions. The sowing of selected pasture plants in infested areas can suppress the growth of parthenium weed by as much as 80% and also provide improved fodder for stock (Adkins et al., 2012). Shabbir et al. (2013) showed that the suppressive plants and biological control agents can act synergistically to significantly reduce both the biomass and seed production of parthenium weed under field conditions. The suppressive plants strategy is easy to apply, sustainable over time, profitable under a wide range of environmental conditions and promotes native plant biodiversity. Species reported as effectively outcompeting P. hysterophorus are Cassia sericea, C. tora, C. auriculata, Croton bonplandianum, Amaranthus spinosus, Tephrosia purpurea, Hyptis suaveolens, Sida spinosa, and Mirabilis jalapa. Extracts of Imperata cylindrica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Otcantium annulatum, Sorghum halepense Dicanthium annulatum, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Azadirachta indica, Aegle marmelos and Eucalyptus tereticornis are reported as inhibiting the germination and/or growth of P. hysterophorus (Kaur et al., 2014).

Source: cabi.org