W. sinensis is a woody, deciduous vine that can climb to 20 m. The bark on older vines is dark grey with light colored dots (lenticels). Vines twine clockwise (left to right). Leaves are alternate and compound with 7-13 leaflets. Leaflets are attached opposite to each other along the leaf stalk. Leaflets have wavy edges and long, tapering tips. Young leaves are densely covered in silky hairs, but are almost hairless when mature. Grape-like clusters of fragrant lavender to purple flowers hang from the vines, usually flowering as the leaves emerge in spring. Flowers are attached to the cluster by a short stalk. Pubescence on the flower is conjoined to the upper third of inner face of the standard (or banner) petal. Flower clusters (racemes) are 12Ð35 cm long. Flattened pods 6-15 cm long and 2-3 cm wide are velvety. Pods contain 1 to 8 flat, round, brown seeds each 1.2-2.5 cm in diameter (Trusty et al., 2007a;Miller et al., 2010).
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Afghanistan , 2013 Grapevine Downy mildew Recognize the problem This disease can be seen all over the green parts of the plant. Areas affected first become yellow then turn more purple. Eventually, the leaves dry out and gradually fall from the tree. Most of the time this disease attacks the grape clusters, causing the fruit to dry out and stay small. After the leaves have begun to fall, the grape clusters will follow. Background This fungus overwinters as spores in fallen leaves. As the...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Bangladesh , September 2013 Thrips attack of Beans Recognize the problem Thrips are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings. They are plant feeders that feed by puncturing their host and sucking out the cell contents. Thrips scar leaf, flower, or fruit surfaces and can cause leaves to become papery and distorted. Infested terminals may become rolled, and drop their leaves prematurely. Discoloured or distorted plant tissue and black specks of faeces around stippled leaf surfaces are clues that...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in India , October 2013 Powdery mildew in Green gram Recognize the problem A powder appears in patches on leaves and other green parts of the plant. This powder is white but later turns a dull colour. Gradually, the powdery patches grow and become circular until they also cover the lower surface of the leaf. In severe infections, leaves turn yellow and fall early. Severely affected parts shrivel and become distorted. The disease causes forced maturity and therefore reduced crop yields. Background...
FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Afghanistan , October 2012 Powdery mildew of grapevine Recognize the problem Powdery mildew is a fungal disease. It attacks all parts of the plant including leaves, fruits and vines. The symptoms include a dusty appearance of whitish or greenish-white powdery patches on the underside of the leaves. In severe cases, green leaves curl upwards and turn white or yellow. Shoots are also susceptible to disease. Infected buds may produce fewer fruits of reduced size. Fruits have rusty spots on the...
1Group number for resistance management (see p. 7-6, Best Practices Guide for Grapes ) 2Re-entry interval on the label (see p. 7-2). Re-entry interval s for grapes usually vary widely by activity. See label for details where a range of re -entry tim es are shown. An asterisk(*) indicates that no re -entry is shown on the label, but the WorkSafe BC re -entry interval may apply and is shown. 3Pre -harvest interval (see p. 7-13). 1 + Pest Control Products Recommended for Use on Grapes in British Columbia Table 1. INSECTICIDES and MITICIDES...
Otiorhynchus lavandus subsp . lavandus Background In August 2016, specimens of a weevil species belonging to the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) collecte d from the site of a commercial soft fruit producer in England were sent to Fera Science Ltd. for confirmatory diagnosis. Large numbers of these weevils had been collected , together with O. sulcatus (Fabricius) (black vine weevil) , earlier in the summer in a crop of Rubus idaeus (raspberry) growing under protected cultivation, and foliar damage was observed. The unknown weevil did not...
The opossum (Didelphis virginiana ) is the only native North American mar - supial. Marsupials are distinguished by their abdominal pouch used for carrying their young. The opossum is not native to California but was introduced in San Jose in 1910 from the east coast of the United States and has now become well estab - lished throughout much of the state. IDENTIFICATION An opossum is about the size of a house cat, has coarse grayish fur, a pointed face, and hairless, rounded ears (Figure 1). With its long hairless prehensile tail, the opossum can carry things such as nesting...
Integrated Pest Management In and Around the Home R accoons Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2014 P EST N OTES Publication 74116 The adult raccoon ( Procyon lotor) is a stocky mammal about 2 to 3 feet long and weighs 7 to 30 pounds. It is dis - tinctively marked with a black “mask” over the eyes and is heavily furred with alternating light and dark rings around its tail (Figure 1). Raccoons are active year round but may take cover in dens during periods of severe winter weather. BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Raccoons prefer wooded areas near water and natural habitats...
O LEANDER L EAF S CORCH P EST N OTES Publication 7480 University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources updated April 2008 Integrated Pest Management for Professional Landscapers and Home Gardeners Oleander leaf scorch is a relatively new disease found mainly in south- e rn California. It is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa , which is the same species (although a differ- e nt strain) that causes Pierce’s dis- e ase of grapevines and almond leaf scorch. The strain of X. fastidiosa that causes oleander leaf scorch will not cause Pierce’s...
Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis , (Fig. 1) is a native of Eurasia that first was documented in California in 1884 in San Diego. By the first quarter of the twentieth century, field bindweed was proclaimed the worst weed in California and many other Western states. It most likely arrived in the United States as a contaminant in farm and garden seeds. However, because of its flowers and climbing nature, some seeds were probably planted as ornamentals, as a ground cover, in hanging baskets, or on trellises. Field bindweed has been given many names including perennial...
PUBLICATION 4-H-2060e 4-H POULTRY SHOW- MANSHIP NATIONAL STANDARD The authors are: Francine A. Bradley and Ralph A. Ernst University of California Cooperative Extension Poultry Specialists University of California, Davis Photographs by Suzanne Paisley Acknowledgment The authors thank the California State Fair for providing the venue for many of this publication’s photo- graphs. While frequent mention is made to 4-H in this publication, the national standard for poultry showmanship has been successfully used with youth involved in FFA and independent livestock projects. The...
Publication 3448 • Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest. grapes.html • UC Statew ide Integrated Pest Management Program Grape April 2019 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTU RE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Table Grape Year-Round IPM Program (Reviewed 7/15) ....................................................................................................................... v Wine and Raisin Grape Year-Round IPM Pro gram...
EENY-214 Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae) 1 M. C. Thomas, J. B. Heppner, R. E. Woodruff, H. V. Weems, G. J. Steck, and T. R. Fasulo 2 1. This document is EENY-214 (originally published as DPI Entomology Circulars 4, 230 and 273, updated for this publication), one of a series of the Department of Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2001. Revised October 2007, June and September 2010, and October 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu . This document is also...
1 Screening Aid This CAPS (Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey) screening aid produced for and distributed by\ :USDA-APHIS-PPQ National Identification Services (NIS) This and other identification resources are available at: http://caps.ceris.purdue.edu/taxonomic_services Todd M. Gilligan 1, Marc E. Epstein 2, and Steven C. Passoa 3 1) Identification Technology Program (ITP) / Colorado State University, USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Science...
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Tra pèang baay chum
Viță de vie
Европейска винена лоза
ევროპული ვაზი Vitis vinifera
Kudzu is a perennial climbing vine that produces very large tubers up to 2 m long and 18-45 cm wide that can weigh as much as 180 kg on old plants. Stems or branches are strong, approximately 0.6-2.5 cm in diameter and up to 30 m in length. They can grow up to 25 cm per day or 18 m per growing season, and produce root crowns where nodes contact soil. Leaves are pinnately trifoliate, 8-20 cm long and 5-19 cm wide with leaflets ovate to orbicular and unlobed to trilobed. Leaves are pale green above and light to greyish green below. Purple to blue flowers, that smell of grapes, are borne on a mostly unbranched inflorescence 10-25 cm long. Seeds are borne in golden-haired, brown, flattened, oblong pods, 4-13 cm long and 0.6-1.3 cm wide. The seeds, visible through the pod, are flattened, ovoid and reddish brown with a black mosaic pattern. They are approximately 4-5 mm long by 4 mm wide and 2 mm thick (van der Maesen, 1985). For a more detailed description and a key to the three varieties, see van der Maesen (1985).
P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.