E. lucius has an elongated body which is green to brown on the dorsal surface with lighter flanks bearing whitish spots. The dorsal fin origin is slightly in front of the anal origin and both fins are placed well back to allow for rapid acceleration (Hubbs and Lagler, 2004);the pectoral fins low on the body, based under the opercle with the pelvic fins, which are rounded and paddle-shaped, also low on the body. There are 17-25 dorsal rays, 10-22 anal rays, 19 caudal rays and 57-65 vertebrae. The duckbill-shaped head of E. lucius accounts for 25-30% of an average total length of 46-76 cm (Scott and Crossman, 1973). On the underside of each side of the lower jaw, there are five sensory pores. The body and most of the head are covered with small cycloid scales. The eyes are yellow and highly mobile (Lefevre, 1999).
Accounting or accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and "financial reporting" are often used as synonyms.
Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, external auditing, tax accounting and cost accounting. Accounting information systems are designed to support accounting functions and related activities. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to the external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information for internal use by management. The recording of financial transactions, so that summaries of the financials may be presented in financial reports, is known as bookkeeping, of which double-entry bookkeeping is the most common system.
Even though accounting has existed in various forms and levels sophistication throughout many human societies, the double-entry accounting system in use today was developed in medieval Europe, particularly in Venice, and is usually attributed to the Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli. Today, accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms, and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).