An erect, branched (occasionally unbranched) annual herb, green, more or less coated with white mealy pubescence. Cotyledons petiole, lanceolate-linear, mealy, bluish-grey with a reddish tinge beneath, 6–12 mm long and 1.5–4 mm broad (Korsmo et al., 1981). Roots stout and tapering at the end. Many branches may emerge from main tap root system. Epidermal cells are more or less polygonal in shape. Fewer, smaller stomata on upper compared to lower leaf surface (Srivastava, 1967). Stems erect, branched towards apex, 0.2–2 m tall, glabrous, furrowed, often with red or light-green streaks, branching varies from slight to extensive. Leaves alternate, simple ovate to rhomboid-oval, uppermost leaves mostly lanceolate, sometimes linear and sessile, glabrous, usually white with a mealy-covering, particularly on young leaves, all leaves densely covered with small, utriculate hairs. Inflorescence in irregular spikes clustered in panicles at the ends of the branches. Flower perfect, small, sessile, green;calyx of 5 sepals that are more or less keeled and nearly covering the mature fruit;petals 1;stamens 5, pistil 1, with 2 or 3 styles, ovary single-celled, attached at right angles to the flower axis. Fruits is an achene (seed covered by the thin papery pericarp). Seed nearly circular in outline, oval in cross section, sides convex, glossy, black, mean size 1.5 mm x 1.4 mm in diameter, weight 1.2 mg.
C. album seems to grow most vigorously in temperate and subtemperate regions, but it is also a potentially serious weed in almost all winter-sown crops of the tropics and subtropics. It is a common weed in about 40 crops in 47 countries, being most frequent in sugarbeet, potatoes, maize and cereals. It is one of the principal weeds of Canada and Europe, and in India, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa is ranked amongst the six most serious weeds. In temperate climates, it is a problem in almost all summer- and winter-sown crops.
C. album seems to grow most vigorously in temperate and subtemperate regions, however it is also a potentially serious weed in almost all winter-sown crops of the tropics and subtropics. It is a common weed in about 40 crops in 47 countries, being most frequent in sugarbeet, potatoes, corn and cereals. It is one of the principal weeds of Canada and Europe, and in India, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan and South Africa is ranked amongst the six most serious weeds (Holm et al., 1977). In temperate climates, it is a problem in almost all summer- and winter-sown crops.
In subtropical regions it is most common in wheat, chickpea, barley, winter vegetables, horticultural gardens, maize, sunflower and soybean. In addition, it is an important weed of tea and upland rice in Japan, citrus orchards and vineyards in Spain, cotton, soyabean and strawberries in the former Soviet Union, cotton, pastures and peanuts in the USA, rice in Mexico and tobacco in Canada (Holm et al., 1977). In Europe and America, it is a problem weed in maize, soybean, wheat, barley, potato and all vegetable crops.
E. crus-galli is an annual grass, culms 30-200 cm, spreading, decumbent or stiffly erect;nodes usually glabrous or the lower nodes puberulent. Sheaths glabrous;ligules absent, ligule region sometimes pubescent;blades to 65 cm long, 5-30 mm wide, usually glabrous, occasionally sparsely hirsute. Panicles 5-25 cm, with few-many papillose-based hairs at or below the nodes of the primary axes, hairs sometimes longer than the spikelets;primary branches 1.5-10 cm, erect to spreading, longer branches with short, inconspicuous secondary branches, axes scabrous, sometimes also sparsely hispid, hairs to 5 mm, papillose-based. Spikelets 2.5-4 mm long, 1.1-2.3 mm wide, disarticulating at maturity. Upper glumes about as long as the spikelets;lower florets sterile;lower lemmas unawned to awned, sometimes varying within a branch, awns to 50 mm;lower paleas subequal to the lemmas;upper lemmas broadly ovate to elliptical, coriaceous portion rounded distally, passing abruptly into an early-withering, acuminate, membranous tip that is further demarcated from the coriaceous portion by a line of minute hairs (use 25× magnification);anthers 0.5-1 mm. Caryopses 1.3-2.2 mm long, 1-1.8 mm wide, ovoid or oblong, brownish (Michael, 2003).
E. crus-galli is a grass species included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and which is considered one of the world’s worst weeds. This species has the capability to reduce crop yields and cause forage crops to fail by removing up to 80% of the available soil nitrogen. E. crus-galli is considered the world’s worst weed in rice paddies and has been also listed as a weed in at least other 36 crops throughout tropical and temperate regions of the world (Holm et al., 1991). The high levels of nitrates it accumulates can poison livestock. It also acts as a host for several mosaic virus diseases. E. crus-galli is also considered an environmental weed that has become invasive in natural grasslands, coastal forests and disturbed sites in Asia, Africa, Australia, Europe and America (FAO, 2014;USDA-ARS, 2014).
E. crus-galli can be a very serious weed in rice, maize, soya bean, lucerne, vegetables, root crops, orchards and vineyards. It has been reported to be a serious weed of 36 crops (Holm et al., 1991), particularly rice, where its similar habit and appearance make it difficult to distinguish when young.
P. hysterophorus is an erect, much-branched with vigorous growth habit, aromatic, annual (or a short-lived perennial), herbaceous plant with a deep taproot. The species reproduces by seed. In its neotropical range it grows to 30-90 cm in height (Lorenzi, 1982, Kissmann and Groth, 1992), but up to 1.5 m, or even 2.5 m, in exotic situations (Haseler, 1976, Navie et al., 1996). Shortly after germination the young plant forms a basal rosette of pale green, pubescent, strongly dissected, deeply lobed leaves, 8-20 cm in length and 4-8 cm in width. The rosette stage may persist for considerable periods during unfavourable conditions (such as water or cold stress). As the stem elongates, smaller, narrower and less dissected leaves are produced alternately on the pubescent, rigid, angular, longitudinally-grooved stem, which becomes woody with age. Both leaves and stems are covered with short, soft trichomes, of which four types have been recognized and are considered to be of taxonomic importance within the genus (Kohli and Rani, 1994).;Flower heads are both terminal and axillary, pedunculate and slightly hairy, being composed of many florets formed into small white capitula, 3-5 mm in diameter. Each head consists of five fertile ray florets (sometimes six, seven or eight) and about 40 male disc florets. The first capitulum forms in the terminal leaf axil, with subsequent capitula occurring progressively down the stem on lateral branches arising from the axils of the lower leaves. Thousands of inflorescences, forming in branched clusters, may be produced at the apex of the plant during the season. Seeds (achenes) are black, flattened, about 2 mm long, each with two thin, straw-coloured, spathulate appendages (sterile florets) at the apex which act as air sacs and aid dispersal.
P. hysterophorus is known to reduce the yield of various crops and to compete with pasture species in various countries. However, the yield loss and specific effects on the crops have not been quantified in all countries (Rubaba et al., 2017).;In Australia, the main impact of P. hysterophorus has been in the pastoral region of Queensland, where it replaces forage plants, thereby reducing the carrying capacity for grazing animals (Haseler, 1976, Chippendale and Panetta, 1994). Serious encroachment and replacement of pasture grasses has also been reported in India (Jayachandra, 1971) and in Ethiopia (Tamado, 2001, Taye, 2002). The weed is also able to invade natural ecosystems, and has caused total habitat changes in native Australian grasslands and open woodlands (McFadyen, 1992).;In India, the yield losses are reported as up to 40% in several crops and a 90% reduction of forage production (Gnanavel, 2013). P. hysterophorus is now being reported from India as a serious problem in cotton, groundnuts, potatoes and sorghum, as well as in more traditional crops such as okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), chickpea and sesame (Kohli and Rani, 1994), and is also proving to be problematic in a range of orchard crops, including vineyards, olives, cashew, coconut, guava, mango and papaya (Tripathi et al., 1991, Mahadevappa, 1997, Gnanavel, 2013).;Similar infestations of sugarcane and sunflower plantations have recently been noted in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992, Navie et al., 1996), whilst in Brazil and Kenya, the principal crop affected is coffee (Njoroge, 1989, Kissmann and Groth, 1992). In Ethiopia, parthenium weed was observed to grow in maize, sorghum, cotton, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tef (Eragrostis tef), vegetables (potato, tomato, onion, carrot) and fruit orchards (citrus, mango, papaya and banana) (Taye, 2002). In Pakistan, the weed has been reported from number of crops, including wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, maize, squash, gourd and water melon (Shabbir 2006, Shabbir et al. 2011, Anwar et al. 2012).;In Mexico, the species is reported as a weed in cotton, rice, sugarcane, Citrus spp, beans, safflower, sunflower, lentils, corn, mango, okra, bananas, tomato, grapes, alfalfa, chili peppers, luffa, marigolds and other vegetables and fruit orchards. It is also a weed in nurseries. In Argentina is reported as a weed of tobacco fields (CONABIO, 2018).;Gnanavel (2013) also reports the following detrimental effects of P. hysterophorus on crops: it inhibits nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes, the vast quantity of pollen it produces (ca. 624 million/plants) inhibits fruit setting, it is an alternative host for viruses that cause diseases in crop plants, and it is an alternative host for mealy bugs.
C. aspersum is a large-sized land snail, with a shell generally globular but sometimes more conical (higher spired) and rather thin in the common form when compared to other Helicinae. The umbilicus is usually completely closed by a thickened white reflected lip that defines the peristome in adult snails. The shell is sculptured with fine wrinkles and rather coarse and regular growth-ridges and is moderately glossy because of a fine periostracum. The peristome is roundly lunate to ovate-lunate. Adult shells (4½ to 5 slightly convex whorls) measure 28-45 mm in diameter, 25-35 mm in height (Kerney and Cameron, 1979). The shell ground colour is from yellowish to pale brown. The shell also shows from zero to five reddish brown to blackish spiral bands superimposed on the ground colour and usually interrupted such that the ground colour appears as yellow flecks or streaks breaking up the bands;the bands are occasionally separated by a median white spiral line (fascia albata). Fusion of two or more adjacent bands and diffusion of band pigment on the whole shell surface are often observed. Frequently, the upper half of the shell is darker because of the effect of a dominant factor (Albuquerque de Matos, 1985). The banding pattern is much less distinct and more broken than that exhibited by the well-known polymorphic snails Cepaea nemoralis and Cepaea hortensis.
The following information is from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Cornu aspersum fact sheet (CFIA, 2014).
Indications of an attack by C. aspersum are ragged holes chewed in leaves, with large veins usually remaining;holes in fruit;and slime trails and excrement on plant material.
Adults and larger juveniles are likely to be visible among the host material or attached to the transporting containers. They may also be hidden in protected locations, sealed into their shells to avoid desiccation. Check the undersides of containers and their rims. Small snails and eggs in soil could be difficult to find. C. aspersum hides in crevices and will overwinter in stony ground.
Inspections are best carried out under wet, warm and dark conditions. Under bright, dry conditions it is necessary to thoroughly search dark, sheltered areas where the humidity is elevated, such as under low-growing plants or debris. The snails may bury themselves in loose soil or other matter, so the only way to be reasonably sure an area is not infested is to make repeated surveys over a long period of time.
C. aspersum causes extensive damage in orchards (creating holes in fruit and leaves) and to vegetable crops, garden flowers and cereals.
In California, USA, populations established in citrus groves feed essentially on the foliage of young citrus and also on ripe fruits, creating small holes allowing the entry of fungi and decay of the fruit (see Pictures). Larger holes result in fruit dropping from the tree or being rejected for consumption during sorting and packing (Reuther et al., 1989;Sakovich, 2002).
In South African viticultural regions, C. aspersum feeds essentially on the developing foliar buds and young leaves of the vines. In kiwifruit vineyards (California, New Zealand), damage occurs on the flowers, not the fully developed fruit, since snails consume only the sepal tissue around the receptacle area. Damage to the sepals can be detrimental by increasing the development of the fungus Botrytis cinerea during cold storage of fruits, and moreover, the slime trail mucus stimulates germination of B. cinerea conidia (Michailides and Elmer, 2000).
C. aspersum, the common garden snail, is represented by several forms that are highly differentiated genetically. Only one lineage, the western one, is considered to be invasive in regions where it has been introduced recently (since the sixteenth century) either accidentally or intentionally (e.g. North and South America, South Africa, Oceania). It was in California, USA, where it was introduced in the 1850s, that it was first treated (1931) as a regulated pest. Its success in colonizing new areas after introduction and establishment may be due to: (i) large phenotypic variation in combinations of life-history traits, especially reflecting a high degree of plasticity (e.g. trade-off of egg weight/egg number), and (ii) great resistance against natural enemies. Also, genetic data indicate that C. aspersum is capable of establishing even after a severe genetic bottleneck.
C. aspersum is a polyphagous grazer with a large diet spectrum. In its natural habitat, it feeds on wild plants such as Urtica dioica or Hedera helix, which are also used for shelter. In human-disturbed habitats, a wide range of crops and ornamental plants are reported as hosts: these include vegetables, cereals, flowers and shrubs (Godan, 1983;Dekle and Fasulo, 2001). In particular, it causes serious damage in citrus groves and vineyards. It will feed on both living and dead or senescent plant material. The Host Plants/Plants Affected table does not cover all plants that C. aspersum will feed on, as the list is so extensive but aims to provide an insight to the well-known species affected. The categorization as 'Main', 'Other' or 'Wild host' is also subjective and should not be considered definitive.
V. villosa is a hairy, occasionally climbing, annual plant (sometimes biennial or perennial) reaching up to 150 cm in height. It has paripinnate compound leaves ending in a ramified tendril, with 5-12 pairs of narrowly elliptical leaflets;stipules eglandular. Papilionaceous flowers (butterfly-like corolla) are blue, violet, purple, or rarely white. The corolla is 10-20 mm and the limb of the standard is nearly half as long as the claw;the calyx gibbous at the base. The inflorescence is a dense raceme with 7-22 flowers;inflorescence peduncle equal or longer than the subtending leaf. The fruit is an elliptic legume 20-40 x (4-)6-12 mm, and brown when mature. There are 2-8 seeds per pod, 3 mm in diameter, often with a hilum measuring 1/12-1/5 of their circumference.
V. villosa, commonly known as hairy vetch, is now present on all continents. It is considered as native to southern and central Europe, North Africa, West and Central Asia but its native range is difficult to ascertain because of its wide naturalization after cultivation for fodder production and as a cover crop. V. villosa usually spreads from cultivation to nearby sites where it can be self-maintained. It is a potential contaminant of crop seeds and can behave as an agricultural or environmental weed. Hairy vetch can alter habitat structure and reduce the abundance of native plants through competition for space. It can also poison mammals and poultry. In California, it has been evaluated as an invasive plant but its impacts in wildlands are considered minor (Cal-IPC, 2015).
V. villosa can be a common weed in vineyards and orchards (France, Italy), in olive (Olea europaea) plantations (Spain), and croplands;affecting maize (Zea mays) (Belgium, Portugal), grain legume crops, spring-summer vegetables (Portugal), winter crops (Belgium, Germany) and rape (Brassica rapa)(Germany) (Hyppa, 2015).
F. gallica is a densely hairy and greyish erect annual, up to 33(50) cm high, with alternate leaves;capitula in clusters, surrounded by linear to linear-lanceolate involucral leaves longer than the capitula.
Filago gallica is an annual plant native to Europe, Macaronesian Islands, northern Africa and southwestern Asia. It was introduced to North America (USA, Mexico), South America (Chile), India, Australia and New Zealand, where it has naturalized. F. gallica was listed as one of the most common plants of Mediterranean origin invasive in Californian rangelands by Houérou (1991), but currently there is little information indicating its invasive behaviour. It is not recorded as a noxious or (declared) weed in its introduced range of Australia, but F. gallica can behave as an agricultural or environmental weed (Randall, 2007).
Within its native range of distribution F. gallica can be an agricultural weed (HEAR, 2015, HYPPA, 2015). F. gallica is an occasional weed of cereal crops, vineyards, olive groves and stone fruit orchards in Europe (France, Portugal and Spain) (Carretero, 2004;HYPPA, 2015).
The egg of L. botrana is of the so-called flat type, with the long axis horizontal and the micropile at one end. Elliptical, with a mean eccentricity of 0.65, the egg measures about 0.65-0.90 x 0.45-0.75 mm. Freshly laid eggs are pale cream, later becoming light grey and translucent with iridescent glints. The chorion is macroscopically smooth but presents a slight polygonal reticulation in the border and around the micropile. The time elapsed since egg laying may be estimated by observing the eggs: there are five phases of embryonic development - visible embryo, visible eyes, visible mandibles, brown head and black head (Feytaud, 1924). As typically occurs in the subfamily Olethreutinae, eggs are laid singly, and more rarely in small clusters of two or three.
There are usually five larval instars. Neonate larvae are about 0.95-1 mm long, with head and prothoracic shield deep brown, nearly black, and body light yellow. Mature larvae reach a length between 10 and 15 mm, with the head and prothoracic shield lighter than neonate larvae and the body colour varying from light green to light brown, depending principally on larval nourishment.
Older larvae are characterized by a typical dark border at the rear edge of the prothoracic shield (Varela et al., 2010) and by the black colour of the second antennal segment. The width of the head capsule is used to distinguish larval instars (Savopoulou-Sultani and Tzanakakis, 1990;Delbach et al., 2010) as well as mandible length (Pavan et al., 2010).
Inspection of Grapevine Reproductive Organs
Inspect inflorescences and look for eggs or larvae on flower buds or glomerules. Inspect grapes and look for eggs or larvae, or damaged berries. It is easier to look for larval damage rather than for eggs, because detection of eggs is very tedious and time-consuming, especially under field conditions. Egg detection is always preferable when an insecticidal control has to be programmed.
Corrugated Paper Bands
This technique has sometimes been employed to trap and quantify overwintering pupae. Bands are placed around grapevine trunks or primary branches, and diapausing larvae pupate inside. However, this method is only useful in the last generation, and its reliability is uncertain.
Their lack of specificity makes their use inadvisable when the adult trapping methods described below are available. EGVM flight activity mainly occurs at dusk (Lucchi et al., 2018c);this negatively affects the visibility of the light traps, impacting on their efficiency.
These traps were largely used in the past before sexual traps were developed, but may still be useful in particular situations. Trapping females with food-baited traps is a valuable tool to predict the onset of oviposition, an event used to properly time insecticide treatments (Thiéry et al., 2006). An earthen or glass pot is baited with a fermenting liquid (fruit juice, molasses, etc.) and the scents produced attract adults which are then drowned;the population may be estimated by counting. Practical problems include irregularity in trapping because fermentation strongly depends on seasonal temperature, trap maintenance (lure replenishment and foam elimination), and low selectivity. Terracotta pots baited with red wine have been used in Spain to assess the L. botrana mating ratio in mating disrupted vineyards (Bagnoli et al., 2011).
Pheromone traps are easier to use compared to feeding traps. They are a sensitive tool to monitor ﬂight of males exclusively, but can be useful to time an ovicidal treatment, and to properly schedule scouting activities in the vineyard. Sexual traps were first suggested by Götz (1939). Chaboussou and Carles (1962) designed traps baited with living L. botrana females, which became increasingly important for monitoring. To obtain a large number of females to bait traps, laboratory rearing methods were improved both on natural substrates (Maison and Pargade, 1967;Roehrich, 1967a;Touzeau and Vonderheyden, 1968), and on synthetic or semi-synthetic media (Moreau, 1965;Guennelon et al., 1970, 1975;Tzanakakis and Savopoulou, 1973). However, sexual trapping became more efficient when the major compound of the L. botrana sex pheromone, (7E, 9Z)-7, 9-dodecadienyl acetate, was described (Roelofs et al., 1973), identified from the female sex gland (Buser et al., 1974), and synthesized (Descoins et al., 1974). In traps, females were promptly replaced by dispensers impregnated with synthetic pheromone, which had essential practical advantages for monitoring. It has now been shown that the L. botrana sex pheromone is a blend of 15 compounds (Arn et al., 1988), but for economic reasons commercial traps incorporate only the major pheromone compound, which has a satisfactory trapping specificity for L. botrana. In Italy, males of few species of non target moths are sometimes captured in L. botrana pheromone traps (Ioriatti et al., 2004).
A major limitation of L. botrana sexual trapping (as often occurs in other insect pests) is the lack of a clear relationship between the number of males trapped and the damage done by their offspring, given the high number of other uncontrolled ecological factors involved. The correlation between these variables has been partially improved by diminishing the pheromone dose in traps (Roehrich et al., 1983, 1986). According to Roehrich and Schmid (1979), only a negative prediction can be made when male catches in traps are sporadic (or nil) can one expect minimal (or even no) damage to be caused by offspring on the crop;but if catches are moderate or high, the damage caused by offspring is unpredictable. Nowadays, the variable performance of the traps on the market, the influence of the trap placement and of the wind direction on the number of catches, make it still difficult to find a strict relationship between catches and infestation, especially when the catches are low.
Forecasting models and moth trapping alone do not provide sufﬁcient population density information and need to be supplemented with appropriate ﬁeld scouting of eggs and young larvae (Shahini et al. 2010).
Insecticides are applied according to action thresholds (AT) on the basis of the resulting infestation assessment (percentage of injured clusters, number of nests per inﬂorescence, number of eggs and larvae per cluster, number of injured berries per cluster). The action thresholds vary widely depending on the generation, susceptibility of the cultivar to subsequent infection by B. cinerea, and whether berries are being produced for table grape, raisins or wine production.
Predictive mathematical models have been developed and tested to forecast the life cycle of L. botrana, integrating both biological and climatic information. Temperature-based models, both linear (degree-days accumulated above a lower threshold) and non-linear (deterministic) have been generated in Switzerland (Schmid, 1978), France (Touzeau, 1981), Slovakia (Gabel and Mocko, 1984b, 1986) and Italy (Caffarelli and Vita, 1988;Baumgartner and Baronio, 1989;Cravedi and Mazzoni, 1990). Major problems affecting the correct inference of tortricid populations using modelling are summarized by Knight and Croft (1991) - it should be noted that prognosis is usually only qualitative. However, modelling can be a useful implement in L. botrana management programmes. Time of the ﬁrst appearance of adults and hatching of the ﬁrst eggs can be forecasted by predictive models based on temperature requirements of individual instars and critical conditions for oviposition (Moravie et al., 2006). Unfortunately, forecast models based on Degree Days are empirical and their robustness is strongly dependent on the environment in which they have been validated. Alternative forecasting techniques are currently under development, such as the evaluation of larval age distribution during the previous generation in order to predict the distribution of female emergence (Delbac et al., 2010).
The following description refers to grapevine, on which symptoms largely depend on the phenological stage of the reproductive organs.
On inflorescences (first generation), neonate larvae firstly penetrate single flower buds. Symptoms are not evident initially, because larvae remain protected by the top bud. Later, when larval size increases, each larva agglomerates several flower buds with silk threads forming glomerules (nests) visible to the naked eye, and the larvae continue feeding while protected inside. Larvae usually make one to three glomerules during their development which provide protection against adverse conditions, i.e., insulation, rain and natural enemies. Despite the hygienic behaviour of larvae, frass may remain adhering to the nests.
On grapes (summer generations), larvae feed externally and penetrate them, boring into the pulp and remaining protected by the berry peel. Larvae secure the pierced berries to surrounding ones by silk threads to avoid falling. Frass may also be visible. Each larva is capable of damaging between 2 and 10 berries, and up to 20-30 larvae per cluster may occur in heavily attacked vineyards (Thiery et al., 2018). If conditions are suitable for fungal or acid rot development, a large number of berries may be also affected by Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger, which result in severe qualitative and quantitative damage (Delbac and Thiery, 2016). Damage is variety-dependent: generally it is more severe on grapevine varieties with dense grapes, because this increases both larval installation and rot development.
Larval damage on growing points, shoots or leaves is unusual (Lucchi et al., 2011).
Lobesia botrana should be regarded as a potentially serious pest on a worldwide scale for all the vine-growing areas that are presently unaffected.
The host plants listed for L. botrana have been compiled principally from Silvestri (1912), Voukassovitch (1924) and references therein;Ruíz-Castro (1943), Bovey (1966), Galet (1982), Stoeva (1982), Vasil'eva and Sekerskaya (1986), Moleas (1988), Savopoulou-Soultani et al. (1990), Gabel (1992) and Ioriatti et al. (2011).
Despite the wide host range recorded, grapevine is the major host crop in which damage is really important. With regard to wild hosts, Daphne gnidium is the major food plant (Lucchi and Santini, 2011). This species was thought to be the original wild host before the invasion of vineyards by L. botrana in the nineteenth century (Marchal, 1912), although this hypothesis has often been questioned (Bovey, 1966) and is still controversial.
Other hosts not selected naturally by females for egg laying have been tested satisfactorily under both laboratory and field conditions, constituting an adequate larval food;see, for example, Voukassovitch (1924) and references therein, including particularly studies by Dewitz, Wismann, Bannhiol and Lüstner;Bovey (1966) and Stavridis and Savopoulou-Soultani (1998).
However, some crops traditionally assumed in the older literature to be natural hosts of L. botrana, for example, Medicago sativa (lucerne) and Solanum tuberosum (potato), are not in fact naturally selected hosts.
H. axyridis, a species of Asian origin, has been used as a biological control agent against aphids worldwide. The first releases were made in North America in 1916, but it was not until 1988 that the first individuals were found in the wild. Since then, it has rapidly invaded most of North America and Europe, and it is now spreading in other regions such as South America and South Africa. In most invaded regions, numbers have increased exponentially and H. axyridis has quickly become the most abundant ladybird in a wide range of habitats. The invasion of H. axyridis causes concern for the populations of native ladybirds and other aphidophagous insects, which it may displace through intraguild predation and competition for resources. It is also regarded as a grape [ Vitis vinifera ] and wine pest, and as a human nuisance because it aggregates in buildings when seeking overwintering sites in the autumn.
H. axyridis has recently been designated pest status of fruit production and processing (Koch, 2003). As insect prey become scarce in the autumn, adult H. axyridis begin to aggregate and feed on fruits such as apples (Malus domestica), pears (Pyrus communis) and grapes (Vitis vinifera). This is problematic to orchard crops and vineyards in particular. Not only do H. axyridis cause blemishing to the fruit, but they are hard to remove from clusters of grapes and so get crushed during harvest and crop processing. The toxic alkaloids contained within H. axyridis taint the vintage (Ejbich, 2003).
The potential threat that H. axyridis poses to wildlife is more worrying than its impacts on crops. H. axyridis is a polyphagous predator and as such has been used widely as a biological control agent of pest aphids and scale insects. However, a wide range of literature sources (Hironori and Katsuhiro, 1997;Cottrell and Yeargan, 1998;Phoofolo and Obrycki, 1998;Dixon, 2000;Lynch et al., 2001;Koch et al., 2003;Pell et al., 2008;Ware and Majerus, 2008;Ware et al., 2008) document that H. axyridis consume non-pest insects including: immature stages of many species of coccinellids (Adalia bipunctata, Adalia decempunctata, Calvia quatuordecimguttata, Coleomigilla maculata, Coccinella quinquepunctata, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella septempunctata brucki, Cyclomeda sanguinea, Eocaria muiri, Harmonia quadripunctata, Hippodamia variegata, Propylea japonica and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata);one nymphalid (Danaus plexippus) and one Chrysopidae (Chrysoperla carnea). It is widely accepted that this list is far from exhaustive because of the highly polyphagous nature of H. axyridis. H. axyridis is a voracious predator and as such has the capacity to directly outcompete other aphid and coccid predators, in addition to acting as an intra-guild predator, thus posing a serious risk to native biodiversity.
H. axyridis can also directly impact on humans through its aggregation behaviour. In the late autumn, H. axyridis migrate to overwintering sites and form spectacular aggregations. Buildings are a preferred overwintering location of H. axyridis in urban localities and the swarms of H. axyridis in homes may cause a human nuisance. Furthermore H. axyridis has been reported to bite humans and some people have developed an allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (Yarbrough et al., 1999;Magnan et al., 2002).
A vineyard ( VIN-yərd, also UK: VIN-yard) is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science, practice and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture.
A vineyard is often characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine.