Neem extracts against whiteflies in beans

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Neem extracts against whiteflies in beans
Recognize the problem
Whiteflies are tiny white winged insects of about 2mm. They usually sit on the
underside of leaves. They fly off when you shake the beans. Young whiteflies
are also white and sit underneath leaves, but do not move much. Young and
adult flies feed plant sap which causes yellow spots on bean leaves, and
weakens the plants. They release a sugary liquid which covers the leaves when
there are many flies. A grey-dark mould then grows on top.
Background
Whiteflies are mainly found in warm weather. Bean plants usually tolerate a
few whiteflies per leaf but if there are many, then often chemicals are sprayed
which are toxic to you and the environment. Insects do not like some wild
plants, like the neem tree. Neem trees can be used to prepare homemade or
even commercial insecticides. Leaves can be used but the anti-insect ingredient
is most concentrated in the seeds. Neem is an insecticide, insect repellent and
anti-feedant. It is used against a wide range of pests such as mites, cutworms,
jassids, grasshoppers and also whiteflies.
Neem is a fast growing tree which is wide spread in Zambia. It grows well on
poor soils and shallow or stony ground, and requires little rainfall. Neem seeds
or neem products can also be bought in agro-input dealer shops. The tree
bears fruit when about 4-5years old.
Management
• Collect ripe golden neem fruits from the tree.
• The level of anti-insect substances is higher in ripe fruits compared to
young fruit
• Remove the flesh around the seeds and dry the seeds in the sun to avoid
rotting
• Use about ½ a handful of dry neem seed (25 to 50g). Shell and finely
grate or grind.
• Wrap powder into a piece of cloth and place it in 1 litre (about 4 cups) of
water to soak overnight.
• For a 16 litre knapsack sprayer you would need 6 to 8 handfuls of
ground neem seed (800g) to soak in 16 litres of water.
• Add 1 tablespoon (10mls) of liquid soap or chopped bar soap into 1 litre
of spray solution, or about ½ a cup (120 to 150 mls) into 16 litres of
spray solution.
• The soap spreads the sprayed solutions over plants and insects.
• Spray early morning or late evening when the flies are inactive.
• Avoid using neem too often as they can destroy useful predators and can
be phytotoxic to the crop
Scientific name(s) > Bemisia tabaci
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Zambia
Authors: Expand Fridah K Chipambala
Plant doctor, Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
tel: +260978135251 email: chipambala@gmail.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
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Young tiny whiteflies can be easily
killed with neem; about 2 mm.
(Photo by C. Hetzel, UPENN)
Ripened neem fruit that fall off the
tree to prepare neem seed
extracts. (Photo by Dinesh Valke,
CC BY NC ND)

Ladybirds to control aphids in cotton

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Ladybirds to control aphids in cotton
Recognize the problem
Cotton (Butonje in Tonga) is often attacked by aphids (njina in Tonga, inda in
Nyanja). The aphids are tiny greenish or blackish, soft insects that can have
wing or no wings. They are so small so that you can only just see them. They
often sit in groups on the underside of cotton leaves (= aphid colonies). There
they suck sap out of the leaves. Leaves curl and later become yellow.
Background
When farmers see aphids, they start spraying, often every two weeks, which
means that pest scouting (kulangalanga tuuka in Tonga) is not done. However,
cotton plants can tolerate low levels of aphids and there are many natural
enemies that can control these aphids, such as lacewing larvae or ladybird
beetles or their larvae. However, these are killed by the by insecticide sprays
which then causes the aphids to become an even bigger problem because they
can multiply quickly. 1 aphid can produce up to 10 young per day.
Ladybird beetles are usually orange or red with black or light coloured spots on
the wing covers but the colour can vary and some can be even black. Ladybird
beetles are roundish, hard covered and shiny. Its larvae are black with yellow
spots and 6 clearly seen legs. Ladybird larvae can feed on 50 adult aphids in 2
days, thus about 500 aphids in 3 to 4 weeks. Ladybirds also eat aphid eggs.
Ladybird beetles are farmer friends that can control aphid population without
the use of chemicals which will help reduce the cost of growing cotton.
Management
• Scout for aphid colonies as well as ladybird beetles and larvae by walking
across the field and checking 10 to 20 plants at a distance of 5 paces
between plants. Do this in at least 3 areas of your field.
• Check the lower leaf, then the middle leaf and the top of the plant.
Ladybirds are often near aphid colonies.
• Record the numbers of aphid colonies if possible, and/or the number of
ladybird beetles and larvae per plant.
• If you find 1 ladybird beetle or larvae every 2nd or 3rd aphid
colony (this means per about 50 to 100 aphids), usually no
chemical spray is needed.
• Continue scouting every 1 to 2 weeks to check on aphids and ladybirds.
• If aphid populations still increase enormously, only then should chemical
sprays be considered.
Scientific name(s) > Aphis gossypii
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Zambia
Authors: George Edward Silumbwe
Ministry of Agriculture & Livestock
tel: 0961189769 email: edwardgeorgesilumbwe@gmail.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
ZM048En
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1 to 2 mm small aphids on the
underside of the leaf. (Photo by
Scot Nelson)
Ladybird beetle (1/2 cm) feeding
on aphids. (Photo by Dave
Campbell, CC BY NC ND)

Garlic formulations to control aphids in cabbage

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Garlic formulations to control aphids in cabbage
Recognize the problem
Cabbage suffers from aphid attacks. Aphids are tiny, pale grey or green, soft-
bodied insects. They can have wings or no wings. They often sit in groups on
the underside of leaves. They suck plant sap, spread viruses and excrete a
sticky liquid that coats the plant. Fungi will thrive on the sticky liquid and
produce sooty mould. Sucking of plant sap causes curling, wrinkling or cupping
of the infested leaves. Plants will be deformed and stunted and produce
unmarketable heads and leaves. Yellowish-greenish mosaic symptoms are due
to virus diseases spread by aphids such as cauliflower mosaic virus and turnip
mosaic virus.
Background
Aphids are often crowded (in colonies) on stems or on the underside of leaves.
An adult aphid can produce up to 20 offspring per day. Under favourable
conditions, aphid populations grow very quick. There are a number of different
plants that aphids do not like. These plants contain substances that are like
insecticides or repellents. Garlic is one of such plants. Garlic extracts can be
used to repel aphids from feeding on cabbage. It can even kill aphids and other
soft insects such as small caterpillars. When 5 to 10 plants of a ¼ acre field
have several leaves with small aphid colonies, then consider spray. However, if
cabbage viruses are known to be in the area, then act earlier.
Management
• Finely chop 10 garlic cloves
• Add 5 to 6 plastic-bottle lids, or about 4 to 5 tablespoons, of mineral oil
or liquid paraffin
• Add 1 litre, or about 4 cups, warm water.
• Mix garlic and oil together and let it steep for 2 days.
• Dissolve 15 grams grated soap (chopped bar soap) or flakes in warm
water and then mix the 2 solutions together. Or add 1 to 2 bottle-lids of
pure, or 1 to 2 table spoons of liquid, soap
• Add 1 part of mixture to 5 parts water (for example 5 cup mixture to 25
cups of water). Put into sprayer.
• Spray directly on the cabbage leaves and heads targeting the pest.
• Sprays must cover the aphids, otherwise they will not work
• Spray in the morning or late afternoons to prevent quick breakdown of
spray by sun, and increase efficiency of the spray.
• Results will show about a day after spraying.
• Repeat the spray after 1 or 2 weeks if needed, but do not spray more
than 2 times a season
• Do not spray 2 weeks or less before harvest
Scientific name(s) > Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Brevicoryne brassicae
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Zambia
Authors: Sichilima Isaac
Seed Control and Certification Institute (SCCI)
tel: +260977692307 email: isichilima@yahoo.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
ZM047En
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Cabbage leaf infected with aphids.
(Photo by A. M. Verala, icipe)
Adult wingless aphid that is only 2
to 3 mm long but some have
wings. (Photo by Volkov S.M. et al.,
1955, via Agro atlas)

Cultural control of mango pulp weevil

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Cultural control of mango pulp weevil
Recognize the problem
Mango pulp weevil is a small beetle that feeds inside mangoes. It is closely
related to the mango seed weevil, but is slightly different. The difference is
that the mango pulp weevil and its larvae destroy the pulp, whereas mango
seed weevils destroy the seed. The weevil larvae are white, legless grubs with
a brown to black head that feed inside the pulp. The larvae are tiny when
young (1½ mm) but grow up to 1½ cm when older. Adult weevils are ½ up to
1 cm in size and are dark brown with light brown backside patches and fine
hairs. They have a long nose like all weevils. There are no easy-to-see outward
signs of infestation. Only when adults emerge is a circular emergence hole
visible on the skin of the fruit. Fruit drop may also indicate infestation. Some
dropped fruits must be sliced open to check for infestation inside the pulp and
seeds. If you see many larvae in the fruit flesh, then these are fruit fly larvae
and not weevil larvae.
Background
The mango pulp weevil mainly spreads by transported infested fruits. This is
because the weevil eggs, larvae, pupae and adults develop within the mango
pulp so infested mangos are transported unnoticed from one place to another
by farmers and sellers. Chemical control is not very effective against this pest
because it feeds inside the fruit, and so is protected against sprays. Therefore,
a variety of cultural control methods are used to control the pest. The simplest
among these methods are orchard sanitation and early harvesting of fruits.
This destroys the eggs, pupae and larvae as well as the adult weevils. Early
harvesting reduces further damage on the fruits because the soft skins of ripe
fruits make them more prone to weevil damage than the still hard skins.
Management
• Harvest mature fruits much earlier than usual. This means, before they
are fully ripe.
• Orchard sanitation which involves removing debris like fallen fruits and
burying them
• Damaged fruits should be buried at least 50 cm below the ground to
prevent adult weevils from hatching and attacking new fruits.
Compositing also helps when composted deeply, meaning under a 1 m
layer of other plant materials, or manure, or soil.
Scientific name(s) > Sternochetus frigidus
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Zambia
Authors: Demian Mabote Ndalamei
Zambia Agriculture Research Institute ZARI of Ministry of Agric. And Livestock
tel: +260211278130 email: mabote.demian@gmail.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
ZM046En
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About 1 cm small weevil with a
longish nose. (Photo by Ken Walker
Museum Victoria)
Weevil feeding on mango pulps.
(Photo by Dr Mohd. Shamsudin
Osman, MARDI, Malaysia)

Management of maize streak virus

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Ethiopia, August 2015
Management of maize streak virus
Recognize the problem
Maize streak virus is very common in Ethiopia and is found in almost all maize
growing areas. It has been reported to cause disease incidences that vary from
a few infected plants per field to total yield loss with 100% infection. Erratic
epidemics have been occuring every 3-10 years. The main damage caused is to
plants younger than six weeks old. On young plants, the top and bottom
surfaces of leaves have yellowish and light green streaks while mature plants
have whitish, yellow and light green streaks running along their surface in the
direction of the leaf veins. Maize plants can be severely stunted if the crop is
attacked during the 4-5 leaf stage. Abnormal bunching of flowers and shoots
and reddish pigmentation may also be seen.
Background
Maize streak virus disease is caused by a virus, transmitted by a brownish
white leafhopper that feeds on the maize leaves. It is highly persistent in the
vector. The more leafhoppers are in the field, the quicker the disease will
spread.
Management
• Use certified disease free seed from a registered stockist and plant at the
onset of the rains
• Planting a large area of maize all at once is likely to make the crop less
vulnerable to maize leafhopper infestation
• Inspect the field regularly when the maize is small, looking for diseased
plants
• Uproot infected plants when they first show signs of disease. This will
keep the disease from spreading to healthy plants. Put the whole plant in
a sack so the leafhoppers do not move to other plants
• Remove infected maize plants (rogueing) at an early stage and feed the
removed plants to animals
• Keep the fields free from weeds, in particular grasses, to keep the
vectors away and reduce disease transmission
• Remove cereal crop residues since they serve as an infection source
• Use chemical insecticides eg. Gaucho 70 WS (imidacloprid) 125gm/ha for
the control of the vector before virus infection
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Ethiopia
Authors: Hiwot Lemma, Daniel W Michael, Mhreteab Tsegay
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
tel: +251-1911059130 email: hiwot.lemma@ymail.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
ET003En
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Symptoms of maize streak virus on
the leaves. (Photo by CIMMYT,
flickr.com)
When using a pesticide, always wear protective clothing and follow the instructions on the product label, such
as dosage, timing of application, and pre-harvest interval.

Maize dryness testing before storage

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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Maize dryness testing before storage
Recognize the problem
Post-harvest losses are a common problem in maize production. Some farmers
are storing maize before the cobs and grains are dry enough. Then fungal
diseases germinate on the grains and destroy them.
Background
Farmers must dry or wait for their maize grains to dry in order to avoid
germination of fungal diseases in the storage period. Well dried grains have
only about 12 to 15% moisture, a cob that has just been harvested can have
up to 50% moisture. Well dried cobs and grains maintain quality (Bubotu in
Tonga), and the grains can be kept for a long period (up to 12 months). This
assures food can be stored in households for a long period. After drying, the
farmer needs to do a home grain dryness test to make sure very low moisture
content (Mudumu in Tonga) is reached. There are three test methods.
Management
• Spread the harvested maize cobs on drying racks off the ground and not
in a heap and if possible do not spread onto the ground for drying.
Alternatively, store them in well ventilated open-air flow barns.
• 2 to 5 weeks of drying process is needed in dry sunny conditions.
• Sample (kusala in Tonga) 10 cobs that were dried.
• This is usually done at shelling after short storage in the ban.
• 1. Break a few grains using teeth and if the grain breaks without any
difficulty then the grain has reached its low storage moisture content.
• 2. The second test method is to remove 10 grains from the 10 selected
cobs and put them in a dry tin. Tightly close it for 2 to 3 days and if
there is no heating or fungal disease, it has reached its low storage
moisture content.
• 3. Alternatively, a seed moisture tester can be jointly bought by a
farming community, or may be used via a service provider.
• If dryness testing shows that cobs are still too wet proceed with drying.
Scientific name(s) > Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp.
The recommendations in this factsheet are relevant to: Zambia
Authors: George E Silumbwe
Ministry of Agriculture & Livestock
tel: +260 961 189 769 email: edwardgoergesilumbwe@gmail.com
Edited by Plantwise
Plantwise is a global initiative led by CABI
ZM039En
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Harvested maize to be tested
whether dry enough for storage.
(Photo by George Silumbwe)
Dryness tested maize grains ready
for storage. (Photo by George
Silumbwe)