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The basic rules of safe agro-chemical use


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015 The basic rules of safe agrochemical use Recognize the problem Farmers use chemicals for preventing, repelling or killing insect pests, diseases, nematodes or weeds. These chemicals are useful, but are a danger to the health of farmers and consumers if not used well. The problem is that farmers often: • Do not wear protective clothing • Do not read and follow instructions on...

plantwise.org

How to identify Spodoptera armyworms on maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Ghana, May 2018
How to identify Spodoptera armyworms on maize
Recognize the problem
Spodoptera is a genus of moths which caterpillars cause damage to a variety of crops,
including maize. They consume the leaves, creating holes and ragged leaf edges.
Feeding through the maize whorl can cause a line of identical “shot” holes, when the
leaf unfurls. Caterpillars also burrow into cobs and feed on...

plantwise.org

Prevention of phosphorus deficiency in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of phosphorus deficiency in maize
Recognize the problem
Phosphorus is one of the most critical nutrients for maize production. Its
deficiency results in reduced yields and is common in soils in many parts of
Malawi. Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency are that young plants look
dwarfed and thin with dark green leaves. Leaf margins, veins and stems show
purple tints...

plantwise.org

Prevention of potassium deficiency in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of potassium deficiency in maize
Recognize the problem
Potassium is a vital nutrient for maize production second to nitrogen in terms
of quantity of a maize plant’s needs. Its deficiency is first seen on young lower
leaves which are green and turn to yellow and brown colour. This may
progress to upper leaves. Curling leaves with inter-veinal scorching and
necrosis....

plantwise.org

Prevention of boron deficiency in pawpaw


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of boron deficiency in pawpaw
Recognize the problem
Boron deficiency in pawpaw results in poor quality and a reduced yield of fruit.
The problem of boron deficiency is common in many parts of Malawi.
Symptoms of boron deficiency in pawpaw are deformation of new leaves and
the young leaves becoming distorted and brittle. Mature plants are
dwarfed/stunted and fruit...

plantwise.org

Prevention of calcium deficiency in groudnuts


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of calcium deficiency in groudnuts
Recognize the problem
Calcium is one of the most important but less mobile nutrients in plants. In
groundnuts, it is responsible for pod formation. Its deficiency is therefore
reflected in poor pod formation resulting in a fewer number of and small ill-
developed pods per plant. For vegetative growth, it is manifested as localized...

plantwise.org

Prevention of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of nitrogen deficiency in potatoes
Recognize the problem
Nitrogen deficiency in potato results in reduced yields. The problem of nitrogen
deficiency is common in many parts of Malawi. Symptoms of nitrogen
deficiency in the soil are lighter coloration of the foliage and in severe cases,
leaves are pale yellow or chlorotic, especially lower leaves, and the leaf mass...

plantwise.org

Prevention of potassium deficiency in potatoes


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of potassium deficiency in potatoes
Recognize the problem
Potassium deficiency in potato results in poor quality tubers and reduced
yields. The problem of potassium deficiency is common in soil in many parts of
Malawi. Symptoms of potassium deficiency in potatoes are poor root and leaf
growth, which subsequently leads to poor water and nutrient uptake of other
crop...

plantwise.org

Earthing up in Irish potato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, August 2013
Earthing up in Irish potato
Recognize the problem
Irish potatoes (called Magwili in Tonga) harvested from un-ridged fields are
usually greenish brown and not the normal creamy white, brownish or purplish
colour. These tubers have a bitter taste, are poisonous and should not be sold,
even not at a low price. Un-ridged fields produce low yields.
Background
When tubers grow in...

plantwise.org

Management of parawilt disease in cotton


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in India, October 2013
Management of Parawilt Disease in Cotton
Recognize the problem
The incidence is particularly high in plants with a large canopy and heavy boll
load. Leaves of affected plants show wilt like drooping, become chlorotic and
turn bronze or red followed by drying. Premature dropping of leaves and
fruiting parts may occur. Leaves lose turgidity and become wilted due to
increased...

plantwise.org

How to rogue plants


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Trinidad and Tobago, December 2013
How to Rogue Plants
Recognize the problem
Roguing is physically removing pests and or diseases from the production area.
Background
Measures must be employed to minimise the spread of the problem to the
other plants. Roguing is one method of preventing the organism from
spreading which in turn will minimize yield loss.
Management
• Observe the growing area...

plantwise.org

Dean against fall armyworm larvae in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
Dean against fall armyworm larvae in maize
Recognize the problem
Caterpillars of the fall armyworm destroy maize and other cereals. Young
caterpillars, of about 1 cm, are greenish with black heads. Older, up to 3 cm,
larvae are light brownish. They have an inverted light Y marking on the
forehead and four tiny black spots arranged in a square on the last part of the
body. They...

plantwise.org

Fertiliser application of cashew


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
Fertiliser application of cashew
Recognize the problem
Many farmers take cashew as an “orphan crop” (neglected crop) and do not
fertilise it, despite its high nutritional and commercial value. Fertilisation of the
crop is important despite the general belief that the crop can thrive well even
without fertilisation. Nutrient deficiency symptoms include stunted growth,
purpling...

plantwise.org

How to avoid misusing pesticides


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
How to avoid misusing pesticides
Recognize the problem
Incorrect use of pesticides often leads to failure in pest control. Sometimes it even
negatively affects the crop. Moreover, the misuse of pesticides results in different
health problems in humans and their animals such as skin irritation, breathing
problems, headaches or more serious poisoning. If water is polluted with...

plantwise.org

Identification of fall armyworm caterpillars


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
Identification of fall armyworm caterpillars
Recognize the problem
Fall armyworm caterpillars may be mistaken for life stages of other insects that
attack maize. Fall armyworms have some similar features to maize stalk (stem)
borers, African armyworm and African bollworm (also called American bollworm
or budworm or cotton bollworm).
Background
The fall armyworm is a new insect...

plantwise.org

Increasing pollinators for more fruits in cashew


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
Increasing pollinators for more fruits in cashew
Recognize the problem
Cashew is an important crop due to its nutritional value and commercial status.
However, inadequate pollination plays an important role in low productivity of the crop
in addition to other factors. Despite the country having a potential of producing up to
25,000 tonnes of cashew nuts from the 4000 ha under...

plantwise.org

Management of bean weevils with insecticides


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2017
Management of bean weevils with insecticides
Recognize the problem
The bean weevil is a serious pest that reduces quality of beans whilst in storage. In
storage, check for perforated bean seeds. Check for the small roundish adult weevils.
An adult bean weevil is small. It is only ½ cm long. The body is grey, brown and
reddish brown, without any distinctive patterns....

plantwise.org

Mechanical control of potato early blight


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Afghanistan, March 2017
Mechanical Control of Potato Early blight
Recognize the problem
Early blight is a fungal disease of potato, with the disease prevalent during
periods of dry weather with intermittent rain. The disease may appear in an
epidemic in many parts of the potato growing areas.
Background
The disease first appears on the older leaves of potato plants as angular, oval
or circular...

plantwise.org

Control of pear fire blight


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Afghanistan, March 2017
Control of Pear Fire Blight
Recognize the problem
The fire blight pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) can invade all parts of the pear
tree. Infected plant parts blacken and die. Shoot tips exhibit the typical
shepherds crook hooked distortion. If infections are not treated, the entire tree
may be killed as the disease spreads into the main scaffolds, trunk, and roots....

plantwise.org

Seed treatment of damping off of tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Afghanistan, March 2017
Seed Treatment of Damping off of Tomato
Recognize the problem
Damping-off is generally limited to areas where drainage is poor or where soil
is compacted, but whole fields can be affected, especially in early plantings
when exposed to rain. Seedlings affected by damping-off fail to emerge or fall
over and die soon after emergence. Stems usually have a dark, shrivelled...

plantwise.org

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