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Solar driers help preserving vegetables


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Solar driers help preserving vegetables
Recognize the problem
Vegetables are often difficult to grow as they are easily attacked by various
insect pests and diseases. But even after a good harvest, losses in vegetables
occur because they quickly perish. They either get rotten or lose their
nutritional value. Then they are useless for consumption.
Background
The shelf life of...

plantwise.org

Sub-surface irrigation with clay pots in citrus


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, December 2014
Sub-surface irrigation with clay pots in citrus
Recognize the problem
Citrus cultivation is profitable and provides farmers with income. Citrus provide
the much-needed vitamin C and other elements for good body function.
Unfortunately, many small scale farmers do not venture into this business due
to the lack of irrigation systems for their trees. But citrus needs...

plantwise.org

Neem seed extracts to control black citrus aphid


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, September 2016
Neem seed extracts to control black citrus aphid
Recognize the problem
Citrus aphids are tiny 1 to 3mm, brown to black soft roundish insects. Some
may be winged, but most are wingless. They suck juice from new shoots and
leaves. High numbers are normally found on new shoots and leaves. This leads
to curling and distortion in leaves. They also damage flower buds and they...

plantwise.org

Neem extract to control powdery mildew in okra


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, September 2016
Neem extract to control powdery mildew in okra
Recognize the problem
Powdery mildew (Bungabunga in Bemba) is a fungal disease and a common
problem in the dry and hot seasons. During the initial stages, whitish powdery
fungal spots can be seen on the leaves. When severe, the leaves become
totally covered with the whitish power, and then yellow, dried or brownish.
Stems can...

plantwise.org

Maize dryness testing before storage


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Maize dryness testing before storage
Recognize the problem
Post-harvest losses are a common problem in maize production. Some farmers
are storing maize before the cobs and grains are dry enough. Then fungal
diseases germinate on the grains and destroy them.
Background
Farmers must dry or wait for their maize grains to dry in order to avoid
germination of fungal diseases in the...

plantwise.org

Garlic formulations to control aphids in cabbage


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Garlic formulations to control aphids in cabbage
Recognize the problem
Cabbage suffers from aphid attacks. Aphids are tiny, pale grey or green, soft-
bodied insects. They can have wings or no wings. They often sit in groups on
the underside of leaves. They suck plant sap, spread viruses and excrete a
sticky liquid that coats the plant. Fungi will thrive on the sticky liquid...

plantwise.org

Benefits of fertilizers in cotton production


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015
Benefits of fertilizers in cotton production
Recognize the problem
Cotton (Butonje in Tonga) is grown without fertilisers by some farmers. The
lack of fertiliser prevents the plant from reaching the full variety height. It may
have fewer branches and fewer or smaller bolls. Plants may show stunted
growth over large areas of the field.
Background
Many farmers are only producing...

plantwise.org

Long bean pod borer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Cambodia, November 2014
Long Bean Pod Borer
Recognize the problem
Crops may be infested from early budding onwards. The eggs are laid on or in
the flowers (inserted between the petals). Young larvae feed inside flowers for
5-7 days before moving to the pods when mid-sized. Favoured entry points are
where flowers and pods are touching. After completing their development (10-
15 days from egg...

plantwise.org

Avoid ratooning for the control of sugarcane whipsmut


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Pakistan, June 2014
Avoid Ratooning for the control of sugarcane whipsmut
Recognize the problem
Whipsmut is a major disease of sugarcane. It is caused by a fungus that
produces a thin white and papery membrane on young shoots, and makes the
end of the shoot curve inwards like a black whip when the crop is mature.
When the fungus is older, many of the small spores on the black whip can be
spread...

plantwise.org

Chemical control of Fusarium wilt of chillies


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Pakistan, June 2014
Chemical control of Fusarium Wilt of Chillies
Recognize the problem
Fusarium wilt is caused by a fungus, which is not easy to see on the plant. The
disease enters through the roots of the plant and will affect the plant from the
roots to the leaves. It travels inside the plant through the food supplying
vessels of the plant. Vessels become blocked and turn yellow. Afterwards...

plantwise.org

Grain storage in metal silos against insect pests


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2014
Grain storage in metal silos against insect pests
Recognize the problem
Major storage pests include the common maize weevil (also called the greater
grain weevil, Busumpe in Tonga language and Impese in Bemba language) and
the larger grain borer (also called Chidonkola mapwe). These pests eat lots of
cereal grains when they have been in storage for six months or longer. Some...

plantwise.org

Rice field rat


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Cambodia, October 2014 (Revised November 2016)
Rice Field Rat
Recognize the problem
Many species of rat may damage and cause losses in rice fields. The damage
caused by rats may start in the seedbeds. Rice seeds may be eaten as soon as
they are broadcast. Later, young emerged seedlings are eaten as well. The
feeding damage on the rice stem by the rice field rats may resemble insect
damage from...

plantwise.org

Herbicides against weeds in soybeans


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, December 2014
Herbicides against weeds in soybeans
Recognize the problem
Weeds compete with soybean for light, space, water and nutrients. Soybean plants are
quickly overgrown. If weeds are not controlled on time, soybean yield will be very low.
Background
Most weeds can be controlled mechanically by pulling out, harrowing, or tillage. Some
serious weeds can be chemically controlled. Be...

plantwise.org

Protect African eggplant from anthracnose


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, September 2014
Protect African eggplant from anthracnose
Recognize the problem
Anthracnose is a fungal disease. It causes grey, dark, sunken lesions on leaves,
stems, flowers, and fruits. On leaves, anthracnose appears first as small,
irregular yellow or brown flat longish spots along veins. Spots darken with age
and expand. On fruits, it produces large grey-dark, sunken spots. In moist...

plantwise.org

Fusarium wilt on chilli


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014
Fusarium wilt on chilli
Recognize the problem
Fusarium causes wilting and drying of chilli plants. The disease is difficult to
control effectively because it is soil-borne and can spread to other fields. This
disease is common in several crops.
Background
Chilli is an export crop which can provide a high income for farmers. Infection
with Fusarium can result in yield...

plantwise.org

Prevention of brown planthopper by conserving natural enemies


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014
Prevention of Brown Planthopper by Conserving Natural Enemies
Recognize the problem
In the past 10 years, the Brown planthopper (BPH) was considered one of
the minor pests in rice but more recently it has become one of the most
serious. This is due to the misuse of pesticides during early-season spraying of
rice in the field.
Background
Nowadays, farmers use...

plantwise.org

Palm thrips of watermelon


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Grenada, April 2014
Palm Thrips of Watermelon
Recognize the problem
Palm thrips are a major pest of watermelon in Grenada. They mainly attack the
growing tips of the vine. The tips become brown and stop growing. This pest
can destroy the entire crop if left untreated.
Background
Palm thrips are able to feed and survive on most of the vegetables grown. It is
very important to remove and burn...

plantwise.org

Management of rice Gundhi bug


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Nepal
,
May
2014
Management of Rice Gundhi Bug
Recognize the problem
The bug is about
19
mm in length with long legs and antennae. Its body is
slender and green or brown in colour. Eggs are laid on the leaves in groups of
10-20
in straight rows. Eggs are oval shaped and dark reddish brown. The
nymph is slender, wingless and brownish green. As it grows up, the green
colour...

plantwise.org

Management of slugs


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Nepal
,
May
2014
Management of Slugs
Recognize the problem
Slugs belong to the class Gastropoda of the Phyllum Mollusca. Different species
are reported in Nepal. Among them,
Limax
spp are commonly found and are
very problematic. Slugs are a serious pest of fruits, vegetables and ornamental
plants. They are soft-bodied molluscs without a shell. Their body length ranges
from 6 mm...

plantwise.org

Chili-fruit fly


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Cambodia
,
November
2012
(Revised August 2014)
Chili - Fruit Fly
Recognize the problem
Fruit fly females lay eggs under the epidermis of the fruit. An infested fruit
usually has a small dimple where the female fly has deposited an egg. After
emerging from their eggs, maggots generally move to the core to feed, but
they may also feed on the walls of the fruit. As the maggot matures...

plantwise.org

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