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Prevention of calcium deficiency in groudnuts


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Malawi, July 2018
Prevention of calcium deficiency in groudnuts
Recognize the problem
Calcium is one of the most important but less mobile nutrients in plants. In
groundnuts, it is responsible for pod formation. Its deficiency is therefore
reflected in poor pod formation resulting in a fewer number of and small ill-
developed pods per plant. For vegetative growth, it is manifested as localized...

plantwise.org

Leaf spot on groundnut


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Myanmar [Burma], June 2014
Leaf Spot on Groundnut
Recognize the problem
The difference between early and late leaf spot are that early leaf spot causes
brownish grey lesions on the lower leaf surface, and late leaf spot causes black
spots on the upper leaf. Early leaf spots are irregular and late leaf spots are
small and regular.
Background
This disease occurs 3-5 weeks after sowing. Early leaf...

plantwise.org

Management of groundnuts to reduce aflatoxins


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2014
Management of groundnuts to reduce aflatoxins
Recognize the problem
Groundnuts can get contaminated with poisons, called aflatoxins. These
poisons are produced by several fungal plant diseases. These fungi are soil-
borne, and can attack the crop both in the field and after harvest. This can be
a problem if a farmer delays harvesting when the crop has already matured.
The...

plantwise.org

Cultural control of bean fly in cowpea and bean


Cercospora leaf spots on groundnuts


Early and late leaf spot on groundnut


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Early and Late Leaf Spot on Groundnut
Recognize the problem
Cercospora leaf spot disease is a disease caused by fungi on leaves of
groundnut. It is a major problem, although traditional farmers in Sierra Leone
consider spots on groundnut as signs of maturity. In most cases, farmers find it
difficult to clearly differentiate between symptoms of early and...

plantwise.org

Groundnut aphid


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Groundnut Aphid
Recognize the problem
The adults of the groundnut aphid (tumbu) are shiny-black, while the young
tumbu are dark brown. They are mainly found on young leaves, stem, flowers
and pegs sucking the sugar water from the plant.
Background
The young and adult aphids suck fluid from the young growing leaves, flowers
and pegs, causing the leaves to...

plantwise.org

Groundnut leafminer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Groundnut leafminer
Recognize the problem
The adult leaf miner is a small brownish grey moth (butterfly) that lays its eggs
on the underside of groundnut leaves and petioles. The eggs hatch into small
yellowish-green caterpillars (tumbu) with shiny black heads.
Background
The young tumbu enters the young leaf immediately after it hatches from the
egg...

plantwise.org

Management of Rosette in groundnuts


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of Rosette in Groundnuts
Recognize the problem
There are two forms of groundnut rosette in Malawi namely yellow rosette and
green rosette. Infection of yellow mosaic leads to yellow twisted and distorted
leaves, while green mosaic is manifested by mottling of younger leaves while
older leaves are dark green and reduced in size. In severe cases, both...

plantwise.org

Management of Aspergillus in groundnuts


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of Aspergillus in groundnuts
Recognize the problem
Aspergillus
is a mould that infects groundnuts and other crops like beans and
maize. It is commonly called

Chuku
’.
When the mould grows on the kernels
inside the shells it can produce a poison called aflatoxin.
Background
The mould survives on crop debris and in soil. It attacks the plants...

plantwise.org

How to export as a small-scale farmer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
How to export as a small-scale farmer
Recognize the problem
Farmers often earn too little money for their produce. Export of agricultural
produce is a good business. Currently this benefits briefcase businessmen who
make huge profits but small-scale farmers could also export. A huge market
within the region exists.
Background
Zambia is exporting various...

plantwise.org

Increase maize yield through early planting


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Increase maize yield through early planting
Recognize the problem
The problem of low yields is common among farmers and is mainly this due to
late planting of their maize. A farmer who plants late may experience a
yellowing maize crop at vegetative stage and stunted growth in general. This
delayed planting can results in 1.5% yield loses per day. It also creates...

plantwise.org

Groundnut caterpillar


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
India
,
October
2013
Groundnut Caterpillar
Recognize the problem
The groundnut caterpillar,
Spodoptera litura
, appears on groundnut both in
vegetative phase and at the time of pod formation. It feeds initially by
skeletonizing, leaving only the outline of the leaves and veins on the plant. As
growth continues, caterpillars eat the entire leaves. After December,
particularly...

plantwise.org

Pod fly in pigeon pea


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
India
,
October
2013
Pod Fly in Pigeon pea
Recognize the problem
The adult is small black fly and is about 5 mm in length. Eggs are laid in the
wall of an immature pod. The female pod fly lays individual eggs on the
developing pods. The pod fly infested pods do not show any external symptom
of damage until the fully-grown larvae chew the pod wall. They leave behind a
thin, papery...

plantwise.org

Management of root knot nematodes in tobacco


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of root knot nematodes in tobacco
Recognize the problem
The root knot nematode disease also known as eelworms or

mandolo

reduces yield and quality of tobacco.
Background
Root knot nematodes are found and stay for long periods in the soil.
Distribution of nematodes in the soil is irregular or patchy. Nematodes affect
tobacco in the nursery and...

plantwise.org

Striga


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Rwanda
,
May
2012
Striga
Recognize the problem
Striga known as "Rwona" or "Kurisuka" in Kinyarwanda is a parasitic weed of
different cereal species such as maize and sorghum, and grasses. Striga plants
produce typical purple ('umwura' in Kinyarwanda) flowers while its leaves are
narrow and long with an intense green colour.
Background
Striga seeds in the soil germinate only when host...

plantwise.org

Groundnut rosette disease


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Groundnut stem rot


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
India
,
November
2012
Groundnut stem rot
Recognize the problem
Germinating seeds infected by groundnut stem rot are covered with masses of
black spongy fungi. This causes rapid wilting of the entire plant or its branches.
The development of white fungal threads can be seen on affected plant tissue,
particularly on the stem. The base of the plant turns yellow and then wilts
down....

plantwise.org

Maize borer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2006
Maize borer
Recognize the problem
The borer is a very damaging pest. It attacks maize before and at the start of
flowering and reduces the size of cobs. Stems collapse and the plant produces
little grain.
The borers are caterpillars. They are usually pink and between
5
or
10
millimetres long.
Background
The caterpillars dig brown or black tunnels...

plantwise.org

Good groundnut seed


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Uganda
,
July
2006
Good groundnut seed
Recognize the problem
Many farmers complain about poor germination of groundnut seeds, especially
of the variety Igola. Fields planted with recently harvested seed or those stored
for some time have gaps or bare spaces without seedlings.
Background
Groundnut seeds are difficult to store. They lose strength quickly because they
have a lot of oil...

plantwise.org

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