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Uproot maize plants with lethal necrosis disease


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Tanzania , September 2013 Uproot maize plants with lethal necrosis disease Recognize the problem Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a deadly disease of maize. It is caused by two types of viruses which together kill the plant. At early stages, MLND causes many long yellow stripes on leaves. This resembles maize streak virus disease but MLND stripes are wider. Later, the plant leaf edges...

plantwise.org

Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2013
Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer
Recognize the problem
The African maize stalk borer
(Funza
in Swahili) is a major pest of maize
mostly in the highland parts of Tanzania. It is a light brown to nearly whitish
caterpillar that grows up to 4 cm long. The caterpillars first feed on young
leaves, which creates holes. When infestation is heavy...

plantwise.org

Staking of tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Staking of tomato
Recognize the problem
Tomato stems are weak in nature and therefore tend to log if not well
supported. This can cause diseases as well as difficulties in carrying out field
operations.
Background
Staking is a way of helping tomato plants to stand uprightly by giving them
support. This will create space for good air circulation, as well as ease...

plantwise.org

Come together to mass trap Mango fruit fly


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2012
Come together to mass trap Mango fruit fly
Recognize the problem
Mango fruit flies ("Vidudu" in Swahili) inject their eggs into young fruits. The
eggs hatch into larvae that grow and eat inside the fruit. You cannot control
them with chemicals because larvae are hidden inside fruit. The larvae cause
the fruit to rot and the fruit drops down before ripening....

plantwise.org

Mealy bug management in coffee


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
October
2012
Mealy bug management in coffee
Recognize the problem
Coffee mealy bugs, also called Kenya mealy bugs, are pests of coffee. The pest attacks
both Arabica and Robusta coffee. These small oval and flattened insects are just big
enough to be seen by eyes (2.5 mm long and 1.5 mm wide). Their body is whitish-
yellowish and segmented, but this is not easily seen as...

plantwise.org

Trapping mice with water buckets in maize fields


20137803403.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
October
2012
Trapping mice with water buckets in maize fields
Recognize the problem
Rats and mice ("Panya pori" in Swahili) are small animals that can cause
considerable damage to the maize cobs and plants. They eat the maize cobs,
making the maize of poor quality. Up to 90% of maize yield can be lost at high
rat and mice infestations.
Background
Rats and mice have high...

plantwise.org

Root knot nematodes in tomatoes


20137803407.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
October
2012
Root knot nematodes in tomatoes
Recognize the problem
Root knot nematodes ("Minyoo fundo" in Swahili) are very small worms that cannot be
seen with the naked eye. The worms infect the roots causing numerous pearl-like
swellings (galls) on roots. Infected plants appear entirely weakened, may become
yellowed and/or remain small. They respond poorly to fertiliser...

plantwise.org

Maize needs phosphorus for good growth


20137804185.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
October
2012
Maize needs phosphorus for good growth
Recognize the problem
Maize leaves that become brown to red (see photo right) may lack phosphorus.
Leaves appear burnt and dry up in severe cases. The affected plants are
underdeveloped and the older leaves drop early. A lack of phosphorus will
reduce maize yields. Shortage of phosphorus in maize fields does not spread
like...

plantwise.org

Tomato red spider mite


20137804187.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
October
2012
Tomato red spider mite
Recognize the problem
The tomato red spider mites are pale-orange to red and feed on the underside
of leaves. They cannot be seen easily with the naked eye. Feeding damage
caused by sucking sap appears as many shiny pale yellow marks on the top of
the tomato leaf (see lower photo). Eventually the leaves turn brown and die or
fall off....

plantwise.org

Brown leaf spot (BLS) of cassava


20137804388.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Uganda
,
August
2012
Brown Leaf Spot (BLS) of Cassava
Recognize the problem
Brown leaf spot (BLS) disease is caused by a fungus. It is one of the worst
fungal diseases of cassava. BLS disease appears as small brown spots with
dark borders on the upper leaf surface (Top picture). The brown spots form
between leaf veins so their size and shape are limited by the veins. The centre
of...

plantwise.org

Thrips management in onion


20147801010.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2013
Thrips management in onion
Recognize the problem
Thrips
(“
Vithiripi

in Swahili) are very small, only
1.5
mm long, thin insect pests. They
are light grey-greenish, but very difficult to see.
They suck on onion leaves starting on leaf bases. Leaf surfaces become covered with
silvery feeding leaf spots or patches. You can usually see these along...

plantwise.org

Bacterial wilt management in tomatoes


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Tanzania , October 2012 Bacterial wilt management in tomatoes Recognize the problem Bacterial wilt ("Mnyauko bakteria" in Swahili) is a disease that can appear on all growth stages. It is first recognised by wilting of leaves at the ends of branches. Two to three days later, the entire plant rapidly wilts without any prior yellowing of leaves. The infected base of a stem can become discoloured...

plantwise.org

Small sticks against cutworms in tomato


20127802055.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2012
Small sticks against cutworms in tomato
Recognize the problem
Cutworms ("sota" in Swahili) are 2 to 4 cm long larvae, and dark grey-brownish
(= soil colour). They are about 0.5 to 1 cm thick and soft. The older thus
bigger larvae can cut and chew young tomato stems quickly. Under a freshly
cut seedling, you can often find a cutworm larvae in the soil....

plantwise.org

Preventing rats and mice from entering grain stores


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2012
Preventing rats and mice from entering grain stores
Recognize the problem
Rats and mice can cause damage to stored maize. They eat the grains, and
leave their droppings, urine and hair which lowers the grain quality and can
also be a health hazard.
Background
Rats and mice have high birth rates. When plenty of food and water is
available, their populations...

plantwise.org

Soap sprays against thrips in onion


20127802061.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2012
Soap sprays against thrips in onion
Recognize the problem
Thrips are very small, only
1.5
mm long, elongate insect pests. They are light
grey-greenish, but difficult to see.
They suck on the leaf bases of onion. Infested onions develop silvery leaf spots
or patches along the inner angles of onion leaves. Infestation causes
premature wilting, delay in...

plantwise.org

Brown spot of passion fruit


20137804232.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
December
2012
Brown spot of Passion Fruit
Recognize the problem
Brown spot sickness is caused by a fungus. This sickness shows itself on the
leaves as brown spots up to
10
mm wide often enlarging along the veins and
drying out in the middle.
On the stems, spots are about
25
mm long. When they occur at the leaf edge,
the vine is likely to die.
On the fruit, the...

plantwise.org

Sucking bugs on passion fruit


20137804233.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
December
2012
Sucking bugs on Passion Fruit
Recognize the problem
Several species of sucking bugs feed on passion fruit. The most important
include the green stinkbug, brown stinkbug, giant coreid bug or tip wilter and
the leaf footed plant bug.
Adult bugs have a shield. They are about
12
to
20
mm long and approximately
8
mm wide. Bugs are usually greenish or...

plantwise.org

Phytophthora blight on passion fruit


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
December
2012
Phytophthora blight on Passion Fruit
Recognize the problem
The sickness is caused by a germ called "fungus". It affects both the yellow
and purple passion fruit. The disease causes root rot, wilt, damping off and leaf
blight.
Affected leaves are water-soaked and light-brown in colour. The leaves fall
readily, leading to death of the vine.
Affected areas of the...

plantwise.org

Woodiness on passion fruit


20137804236.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
December
2012
Woodiness on Passion Fruit
Recognize the problem
This is one of the most dangerous sicknesses of the purple passion fruit. It
makes the passion fruit woody and hard, hence the name "woodiness".
The disease is visible on leaves as a light or dark green mosaic pattern often
with light yellow discolouration.
Infected fruits appear small and shapeless with hardy peel...

plantwise.org

Gall flies on mango


20137804247.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Kenya
,
December
2012
Gall flies on Mango
Recognize the problem
Gall flies are small flies about 1-2 mm. The female pierces and lays eggs on
young leaves. The eggs hatch later into maggots. These maggots make the
tissue swollen and soft leading to formation of galls. A gall fly maggot lives
inside each of the galls, which are about 4mm wide. The galls cause the
bordering tissues to...

plantwise.org

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