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Management of fruit flies Bactrocera invadens and Ceratitis cosyra in mangoes using traps


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
August
2014
Management of fruit flies in mangoes using traps
Recognize the problem
Fruit flies damage mangoes by laying their eggs in the fruits, just under the
skin. After eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the flesh of the fruit, causing it to
turn mushy and eventually rot. The problem of fruit flies in a mango orchard
can be mitigated using fruit fly traps.
Background
A fruit...

plantwise.org

Clean orchards to reduce Asian fruit fly


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Clean orchards to reduce Asian fruit fly
Recognize the problem
The Asian fruit fly is a small fly, about 8 mm in length, with yellow and small
dark brown to black markings on its wings. Larvae, also called maggots, feed
inside the fruits. Damage symptoms are dark spots on the fruits, rotting of
fruits, or falling of fruits. Fruit flies cause devastating damage to...

plantwise.org

Neem against whiteflies in cotton


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Neem against whiteflies in cotton
Recognize the problem
Whiteflies are a major pest of cotton, and if not controlled can cause high yield
losses. Whiteflies are tiny sucking insects which disturb the growth of leaves
and cause them to curl. Whiteflies are difficult to control as they usually fly
away or hide under leaves when sprayed.
Background
Neem trees are...

plantwise.org

Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug
Recognize the problem
Cassava mealybug is a serious insect pest of cassava. This pest is woolly, oval,
whitish-pink and about 3-5 mm long. It feeds on the tip of plants which
reduces the growth of leaves and tubers. It can cause up to 50% loss of tubers
and 100% loss of leaves. This pest looks like white cotton wool and is...

plantwise.org

Prevention of nitrogen deficiency in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Prevention of Nitrogen deficiency in maize
Recognize the problem
Nitrogen deficiency results in reduced yields. The problem of nitrogen
deficiency is common in many parts of Malawi. Symptoms of nitrogen
deficiency in the soil are stunted growth of maize plants and yellowing (then
death) of leaves which start from the bottom of the plant.
Background
Nitrogen helps...

plantwise.org

Management of maize streak virus disease (MSVD)


20167800236.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of maize streak virus disease
(MSVD)
Recognize the problem
Maize streak is one the most important diseases of maize, especially in irrigated
farms. The disease can be seen on the top and bottom of the leaves. The early
symptoms of the disease are small round spots on the leaf which get bigger
and turn into yellow or light green streaks which run along...

plantwise.org

Management of Rosette in groundnuts


20167800237.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of Rosette in Groundnuts
Recognize the problem
There are two forms of groundnut rosette in Malawi namely yellow rosette and
green rosette. Infection of yellow mosaic leads to yellow twisted and distorted
leaves, while green mosaic is manifested by mottling of younger leaves while
older leaves are dark green and reduced in size. In severe cases, both...

plantwise.org

Management of Aspergillus in groundnuts


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of Aspergillus in groundnuts
Recognize the problem
Aspergillus
is a mould that infects groundnuts and other crops like beans and
maize. It is commonly called

Chuku
’.
When the mould grows on the kernels
inside the shells it can produce a poison called aflatoxin.
Background
The mould survives on crop debris and in soil. It attacks the plants...

plantwise.org

Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2013
Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer
Recognize the problem
The African maize stalk borer
(Funza
in Swahili) is a major pest of maize
mostly in the highland parts of Tanzania. It is a light brown to nearly whitish
caterpillar that grows up to 4 cm long. The caterpillars first feed on young
leaves, which creates holes. When infestation is heavy...

plantwise.org

How to export as a small-scale farmer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
How to export as a small-scale farmer
Recognize the problem
Farmers often earn too little money for their produce. Export of agricultural
produce is a good business. Currently this benefits briefcase businessmen who
make huge profits but small-scale farmers could also export. A huge market
within the region exists.
Background
Zambia is exporting various...

plantwise.org

Neem against early blight in tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
November
2013
Neem against early blight in tomato
Recognize the problem
Early blight is a fungal disease that can occur at any stage of the tomato plant.
The fungus makes brown to black spots on leaves. The spots are concentric
(layered rings that grow outwardly). If it attacks the plants early, no fruits are
produced. If it attacks after flowering, then the fruits are also...

plantwise.org

Red Sunhemp against nematodes in tomatoes


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Red Sunhemp against nematodes in tomatoes
Recognize the problem
Nematodes are small worms which live in the soil and cannot be seen with the
naked eye. When they infect the plant, they cause swellings on the roots of
host crops, such as tomatoes. This disturbs the uptake of nutrients from the
soil through the roots to the rest of the plant. Attacked plants grow...

plantwise.org

Staking of tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Staking of tomato
Recognize the problem
Tomato stems are weak in nature and therefore tend to log if not well
supported. This can cause diseases as well as difficulties in carrying out field
operations.
Background
Staking is a way of helping tomato plants to stand uprightly by giving them
support. This will create space for good air circulation, as well as ease...

plantwise.org

Management of bean stem maggot


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of Bean stem maggot
Recognize the problem
Bean stem maggots feed at the base of stems, which blocks the movement of
water and nutrients from the roots to the upper parts of the plant. This can
cause wilting and death of plants.
Background
The bean fly has shiny wings and a black body. It lays its eggs on the first
leaves of the bean seedlings as they...

plantwise.org

Management of aphids in cabbage


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of aphids in cabbage
Recognize the problem
Aphids, commonly known as

nsabwe
”,
cause great damage in cabbage and
other leafy plant species. They are found on the underside of the leaves, young
plants and interior part of cabbage bubbles where they survive in dry season.
This leads to death of young plants, transmission of viral diseases and...

plantwise.org

Control of larger grain borer in stored maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Control of larger grain borer in stored maize
Recognize the problem
Larger Grain Borer (LGB) is locally called Nankafumbwe wamkulu. It is a dark
brown beetle which has a square body. This pest destroys maize grains when
they are in storage.
Background
LGB attacks maize right from the field and continues in the store. It also feeds
on wood, plastics, storage bags...

plantwise.org

Management of root knot nematodes in tobacco


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Management of root knot nematodes in tobacco
Recognize the problem
The root knot nematode disease also known as eelworms or

mandolo

reduces yield and quality of tobacco.
Background
Root knot nematodes are found and stay for long periods in the soil.
Distribution of nematodes in the soil is irregular or patchy. Nematodes affect
tobacco in the nursery and...

plantwise.org

Thrips management in onion


20147801010.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2013
Thrips management in onion
Recognize the problem
Thrips
(“
Vithiripi

in Swahili) are very small, only
1.5
mm long, thin insect pests. They
are light grey-greenish, but very difficult to see.
They suck on onion leaves starting on leaf bases. Leaf surfaces become covered with
silvery feeding leaf spots or patches. You can usually see these along...

plantwise.org

Cassava mosaic virus disease management


20167800238.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Malawi
,
July
2013
Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease Management
Recognize the problem
Cassava mosaic virus disease (CMVD) is the most important disease of cassava
in Malawi. It is locally called

Khate la chinangwa

in Chichewa. Cassava mosaic
virus disease causes distortion (disfiguring of the shape of leaves) and
reduction of leaves. Leaves of infected plants have green and...

plantwise.org

Fall armyworm (FAW) on maize in Malawi


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Spodoptera frugiperda Fall Armyworm (FAW) on Maize
PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN AND YELLOW LIST
 
Prevention
Scouting
Direct control
Direct control
Restrictions

Plant early, with the first
rains, as Fall Armyworm
(FAW) populations build
up later in the crop
season.

Avoid planting at
different times as this
provides a continuous
source of food for FAW.

If available, plant maize
varieties with resistance
to FAW.

Consider...

plantwise.org

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