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Control of thrips on cowpea


20147800112.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Control of thrips on cowpea
Recognize the problem
The cowpea flower thrips or African bean flower thrips are shiny, black,
slender, small-winged insects that feed on flower buds and flowers. During the
pre-flowering period, nymphs and adults may damage the terminal buds.
However, the main damage is on the flower buds and flowers.
Attacked flower buds...

plantwise.org

Early and late leaf spot on groundnut


20147800113.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Early and Late Leaf Spot on Groundnut
Recognize the problem
Cercospora leaf spot disease is a disease caused by fungi on leaves of
groundnut. It is a major problem, although traditional farmers in Sierra Leone
consider spots on groundnut as signs of maturity. In most cases, farmers find it
difficult to clearly differentiate between symptoms of early and...

plantwise.org

Groundnut aphid


20147800114.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Groundnut Aphid
Recognize the problem
The adults of the groundnut aphid (tumbu) are shiny-black, while the young
tumbu are dark brown. They are mainly found on young leaves, stem, flowers
and pegs sucking the sugar water from the plant.
Background
The young and adult aphids suck fluid from the young growing leaves, flowers
and pegs, causing the leaves to...

plantwise.org

Groundnut leafminer


20147800115.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Groundnut leafminer
Recognize the problem
The adult leaf miner is a small brownish grey moth (butterfly) that lays its eggs
on the underside of groundnut leaves and petioles. The eggs hatch into small
yellowish-green caterpillars (tumbu) with shiny black heads.
Background
The young tumbu enters the young leaf immediately after it hatches from the
egg...

plantwise.org

Management of birds in rice fields


20147800117.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
September
2013
Management of birds in rice fields
Recognize the problem
In Sierra Leone, birds, especially the weaver birds and sparrows, are
recognised as troublesome animals that cause serious damage to rice plants.
Birds damage rice from the time of planting the seeds in the field to
maturation. The entire crop field can be spoilt if the population of birds grows....

plantwise.org

Cassava mosaic disease


20127801773.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2006
Cassava mosaic disease
Recognize the problem
Cassava mosaic disease is commonly known as leprosy. Sick plants have pale
green and yellowish patches on the leaves.
The sick plants are often small. They do not grow to their normal height. Sick
plants have small leaves and small tubers so the harvest is poor.
Background
Cassava mosaic disease is caused by a...

plantwise.org

Attracting snails away from garden plants


20127801281.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Attracting snails away from garden plants
Recognize the problem
Snails are pests that move very slowly and carry their house (a shell) on their
back. They eat the leaves of many plants. They make holes in the leaves and
often leave a trail of clear slime where they have moved over the leaf or
ground.
Background
Because snails move very slowly, it is easy to...

plantwise.org

Avoiding leeches in rice paddies


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.org Created in Sierra Leone , May 2012 Avoiding leeches in rice paddies Recognize the problem Leeches are almost always found in water, usually near the surface. To eat, they stick to the body of an animal (including people), make a small cut in the skin with their mouth and then drink the blood. They can be very common in swamps used for growing rice. When there are very many leeches in rice paddies, they...

plantwise.org

Black pod disease of cacao


20127801283.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
(Revised September 2015)
Black pod disease of cacao
Recognize the problem
The disease affects cacao pods at all stages and the young shoots of newly
planted trees. The diseased young shoots may die. If the pods become
diseased, a yellowish spot will appear, which leads to little brown spots. Within
7-10 days, the brownish spots extend and change to a darker...

plantwise.org

Control of cowpea pod borer


20127801284.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Control of cowpea pod borer
Recognize the problem
Cowpea pod borer is an insect that causes damage to flowers, leaves and pods
of cowpea. Leaves are folded and stuck together by the caterpillar ("tumbu").
You can see small holes chewed into the pods by the insect. It is very common
to see many small, yellow or brown balls stuck to the sides of a damaged pod....

plantwise.org

Controlling weeds in upland rice


20127801286.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Controlling weeds in upland rice
Recognize the problem
Weeds are unwanted plants growing among the rice plants. Some are similar to
the rice plant and others are different (they may have broad leaves). Weeds
grow faster than the rice. The weeds compete with the rice plants for nutrients,
water and sunlight and also act as a host for other pests and diseases....

plantwise.org

Green muscle for grasshoppers


20127801288.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Green Muscle for grasshoppers
Recognize the problem
The variegated grasshopper is a serious pest of many common crops. It feeds
primarily on the leaves of plants, but will even eat the skin of the stem. The
variegated grasshopper is recognised by the bright yellow colours on its body.
When it is much older and larger, it becomes mostly green and bright yellow...

plantwise.org

Local spray apparatus


20127801290.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Local spray apparatus
Recognize the problem
A knapsack sprayer is not always available when spraying is needed. It might
be broken or someone else might be using it. If the crop is being damaged and
other management options have not worked the crop should be sprayed. It
might not be possible to wait until the knapsack sprayer is ready.
Background
A tutik...

plantwise.org

Preventing weeds in cassava


20127801293.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Preventing weeds in cassava
Recognize the problem
Weeds are unwanted plants that affect the growth of cassava and reduce the
crop yield. Weeds compete with cassava for nutrients, water, space, light and
soil moisture. They give protection and food for crop pests, which makes the
number of pests increase.
Background
Weeds need light to be able to grow. They...

plantwise.org

Protecting cereal crops from birds


20127801294.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Protecting cereal crops from birds
Recognize the problem
Birds cause serious damage to cereal crops such as sorghum, maize and millet.
Their damage can be identified by empty spaces in the farm where birds have
eaten seeds before they can grow. Grains on the seed heads or cobs may be
half-filled or empty. Early seeds may be damaged by birds piercing the seed...

plantwise.org

Protecting okra seeds from cotton stainer


20127801295.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
May
2012
Protecting okra seeds from cotton stainer
Recognize the problem
Adult cotton stainers have brown and black backs with two black spots. They
have red and white stripes on the body underneath. Young cotton strainers
have red and white stripes all over the body. These insects may feed for
several days on okra plants, leaving black spots on the dry pods....

plantwise.org

Killing grasshopper eggs


20127801194.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2008
(Revised December 2012)
Killing grasshopper eggs
Recognize the problem
The grasshopper eats at least 18 different types of crops in Sierra Leone.
Between March and April you will find grasshoppers mating, mounting on each
other. Immediately after mating the male dies. This means you will find dead
grasshoppers around, although in some cases female...

plantwise.org

Slings and stones for birds


20127801191.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2008
Slings and stones for birds
Recognize the problem
Birds cause serious damage to rice and many other crops, especially near
harvest.
Background
Birds are clever, so it is difficult to scare them. Birds soon lose their fear of
scarecrows and other tricks. Although farmers have thrown stones at birds for
many years, the birds are still frightened of stones....

plantwise.org

Hunting cutting grass with nets and dogs


20127801192.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2008
Hunting Cutting Grass with nets and dogs
Recognize the problem
The cutting grass is an animal related to the mouse and rat, only much bigger.
It destroys field crops like rice, cassava and sweet potato.
Background
Cutting grass are afraid of noise. They are active at night and will become
confused if frightened during the daytime. You can hunt them any...

plantwise.org

Fencing and trapping cutting grass


20127801193.jpg

FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Sierra Leone
,
December
2008
Fencing and trapping Cutting Grass
Recognize the problem
The cutting grass (grass cutter) destroys crops of farmers in many parts of
Africa. Chemicals have proven to be both hazardous and unaffordable and do
not control the cutting grass.
Background
Fences with traps are a cheap and effective control of the cutting grass. Many
of the materials are local....

plantwise.org

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