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The basic rules of safe agro-chemical use


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS www.plantwise.orgCreated in Zambia, July 2015 The basic rules of safe agrochemical use Recognize the problem Farmers use chemicals for preventing, repelling or killing insect pests, diseases, nematodes or weeds. These chemicals are useful, but are a danger to the health of farmers and consumers if not used well. The problem is that farmers often: • Do not wear protective clothing • Do not read and follow instructions on...

plantwise.org

Clean orchards to reduce Asian fruit fly


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Clean orchards to reduce Asian fruit fly
Recognize the problem
The Asian fruit fly is a small fly, about 8 mm in length, with yellow and small
dark brown to black markings on its wings. Larvae, also called maggots, feed
inside the fruits. Damage symptoms are dark spots on the fruits, rotting of
fruits, or falling of fruits. Fruit flies cause devastating damage to...

plantwise.org

Managing maize storage weevils with Tephrosia


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Managing maize storage weevils with Tephrosia
Recognize the problem
Maize weevils (known as Sumpwa sumpwa in Nyanja language) cause large
losses in maize grains. Their larvae hatch from eggs laid on to grains by
weevils. The larvae cause damage by boring into the grain, making holes and
grinding it to a fine powder. The weevils occur during and after harvest and...

plantwise.org

Neem against diamondback moth in cabbage


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Neem against diamondback moth in cabbage
Recognize the problem
The diamondback moth (also called Sefa

sefa) is a grey small butterfly with a
raised tail that looks like an umbrella. When seen from above, the wings have
a white diamond shape. The larvae are green caterpillars and are found on
leaves. They cause leaf and head damage to cabbages and rapes....

plantwise.org

Neem against whiteflies in cotton


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Neem against whiteflies in cotton
Recognize the problem
Whiteflies are a major pest of cotton, and if not controlled can cause high yield
losses. Whiteflies are tiny sucking insects which disturb the growth of leaves
and cause them to curl. Whiteflies are difficult to control as they usually fly
away or hide under leaves when sprayed.
Background
Neem trees are...

plantwise.org

Pheromone traps against fruit flies in citrus


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Pheromone traps against fruit flies in citrus
Recognize the problem
Fruits are attacked by small insects called fruit flies. These flies lay eggs inside
fruit. Worm-like larvae hatch from the eggs and feed on the fruit causing it to
rot. This results in low yields and reduced fruit quality. Affected fruits have
black spots on and cannot be eaten because they...

plantwise.org

Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Warm water treatment of cassava mealybug
Recognize the problem
Cassava mealybug is a serious insect pest of cassava. This pest is woolly, oval,
whitish-pink and about 3-5 mm long. It feeds on the tip of plants which
reduces the growth of leaves and tubers. It can cause up to 50% loss of tubers
and 100% loss of leaves. This pest looks like white cotton wool and is...

plantwise.org

Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Tanzania
,
September
2013
Intercrop maize with cowpea against stalk borer
Recognize the problem
The African maize stalk borer
(Funza
in Swahili) is a major pest of maize
mostly in the highland parts of Tanzania. It is a light brown to nearly whitish
caterpillar that grows up to 4 cm long. The caterpillars first feed on young
leaves, which creates holes. When infestation is heavy...

plantwise.org

Control of rats in vegetable gardens


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Control of rats in vegetable gardens
Recognize the problem
Gardens are affected by vegetable-eating rats. Rats are small rodents of about
10 to 20 cm, with brown or grey fur. The presence of rats is noticed when
chewed vegetables are found showing teeth marks. Rats particularly like
tomatoes, rape and cabbage heads. This results in low yields and poor quality...

plantwise.org

Cultural control of Diplodia cob rot in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Cultural control of Diplodia cob rot in maize
Recognize the problem
Diplodia maize cob rot (also called ear rot) is a disease caused by a fungus. It
causes rotting of the grains on the mature maize cob, reducing yield by up to
80%. The fungus turns the grains brown, and whitish threads can also be
seen. Other cob rot diseases cause reddish, blackish or greyish...

plantwise.org

Glyphosate weed control in maize


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Glyphosate weed control in maize
Recognize the problem
Many farmers fail to control weeds in maize by not using glyphosate properly.
They only partially control weeds and sometimes even destroy their crop by
spraying when maize seedlings are visible.
Background
Any plant that grows where it is not wanted is called a weed. Glyphosate is a
type of chemical called a...

plantwise.org

How to export as a small-scale farmer


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
How to export as a small-scale farmer
Recognize the problem
Farmers often earn too little money for their produce. Export of agricultural
produce is a good business. Currently this benefits briefcase businessmen who
make huge profits but small-scale farmers could also export. A huge market
within the region exists.
Background
Zambia is exporting various...

plantwise.org

Improved grain storage structures


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Improved grain storage structures
Recognize the problem
A number of losses occur after harvest in maize. Losses may occur during
threshing, winnowing, drying, transporting and processing, by attack of
termites, rodents and domestic animals, especially when maize overstays in the
field after maturity. However, poor storage is the main cause of post-harvest...

plantwise.org

Increase maize yield through early planting


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Increase maize yield through early planting
Recognize the problem
The problem of low yields is common among farmers and is mainly this due to
late planting of their maize. A farmer who plants late may experience a
yellowing maize crop at vegetative stage and stunted growth in general. This
delayed planting can results in 1.5% yield loses per day. It also creates...

plantwise.org

Neem against early blight in tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
November
2013
Neem against early blight in tomato
Recognize the problem
Early blight is a fungal disease that can occur at any stage of the tomato plant.
The fungus makes brown to black spots on leaves. The spots are concentric
(layered rings that grow outwardly). If it attacks the plants early, no fruits are
produced. If it attacks after flowering, then the fruits are also...

plantwise.org

Planting material free of cassava mosaic virus


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Planting material free of cassava mosaic virus
Recognize the problem
Cassava mosaic virus is a disease which affects cassava plants. Symptoms of
the disease include the appearance of yellowish green small patches across the
leaves (mosaics), and distorted or deformed leaves. When the disease develops
as a result of infected planting materials, then symptoms are...

plantwise.org

Red Sunhemp against nematodes in tomatoes


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Red Sunhemp against nematodes in tomatoes
Recognize the problem
Nematodes are small worms which live in the soil and cannot be seen with the
naked eye. When they infect the plant, they cause swellings on the roots of
host crops, such as tomatoes. This disturbs the uptake of nutrients from the
soil through the roots to the rest of the plant. Attacked plants grow...

plantwise.org

Staking of tomato


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FACTSHEETS FOR FARMERS
www.plantwise.org
Created in
Zambia
,
August
2013
Staking of tomato
Recognize the problem
Tomato stems are weak in nature and therefore tend to log if not well
supported. This can cause diseases as well as difficulties in carrying out field
operations.
Background
Staking is a way of helping tomato plants to stand uprightly by giving them
support. This will create space for good air circulation, as well as ease...

plantwise.org

Common plant health problems of maize: Zambia


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Common plant health problems of maize in Zambia Plant Doctor Training African maize stalk borer INSECT – Busseola fusca (© Anne Bruntse, Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, ICIPE, CIMMYT, R ob Harling) African pink stem borer INSECT – Sesamia calamistis (© Rob Harling)  Caterpillars are soft, segmented, 1 to 3.5 cm.  They look smooth & shiny; creamy-white, rarely greyish or pinkish-white, no hairs or markings  Head is dark brown  First,...

plantwise.org

Fall armyworm (FAW) on maize in Zambia


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Spodoptera frugiperda Fall Armyworm (FAW) on Maize
PEST MANAGEMENT DECISION GUIDE: GREEN AND YELLOW LIST
 
Prevention
Scouting
Direct control
Direct control
Restrictions

Plant early, with the first
rains, as Fall Armyworm
(FAW) populations build
up later in the crop
season.

Avoid planting at
different times as this
provides a continuous
source of food for FAW.

If available, plant maize
varieties with resistance
to FAW.

Consider...

plantwise.org

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