30. Production and postharvest activities for fonio

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AgriGuide: Best Practices for Organic Farming, 29 July 2012

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Copyright © 2012 ICVolunteers

Compilation and writing: Sigfrido Romero, Viola Krebs, Namory Diakhaté

Editing: Diego Beamonte, Viola Krebs, Camille Saadé, Lana Melle, Shindouk Mohammed

Lamine

French translation: Cindy Bellemin-Magninot

English translation: Kate O' Dwyler, Amy Louise Viana Lima

Illustrations: Matilde de Fuentes de Medem, Abdou Kane Ndaw, Miranda Todd

Photos: Viola Krebs

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ICVolunteers

AgriGuide: Best Practices for Organic Farming, 29 July 2012

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 5

GLOSSARY OF TERMS .................................................................................................................... 7

ACRONYMS .................................................................................................................................... 11

BEST PRACTICES ORGANIC PRODUCTION ............................................................................... 13

WORKING STEPS ................................................................................................................................ 13

RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 14

FARMERS’S BOX FOR LEARNING AND SHARING ................................................................... 17

IDENTIFIED FOOD AND CASH CROPS ........................................................................................ 19

CEREALS ......................................................................................................................................... 19

Maize ........................................................................................................................................................ 19

Millet ......................................................................................................................................................... 24

Rice ........................................................................................................................................................... 25

Sorghum ................................................................................................................................................... 29

Wheat ....................................................................................................................................................... 37

Fonio ......................................................................................................................................................... 41

VEGETABLES ..................................................................................................................................... 44

Cabbage ................................................................................................................................................... 44

Carrot ........................................................................................................................................................ 45

Onion ........................................................................................................................................................ 46

Salad/Lettuce ............................................................................................................................................ 47

Tomato ...................................................................................................................................................... 48

ROOTS AND TUBERS ........................................................................................................................... 50

Cassava .................................................................................................................................................... 50

Potato/Sweet potato ................................................................................................................................. 55

FRUITS ............................................................................................................................................ 57

Mango ....................................................................................................................................................... 57

Watermelon .............................................................................................................................................. 61

Banana production ................................................................................................................................... 62

PULSES ........................................................................................................................................... 81

Cowpea Bean ........................................................................................................................................... 81

Groundnut ................................................................................................................................................. 83

NUTS .............................................................................................................................................. 88

Cashew nuts ............................................................................................................................................. 88

FIBERS ............................................................................................................................................ 91

Cotton ....................................................................................................................................................... 91

PESTICIDES: COMPOUNDS, USE AND HAZARDS ..................................................................... 96

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 96

HUMAN HEALTH AND PESTICIDES ............................................................................................................ 96

CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGING TO AN ORGANIC CROP PROTECTION SYSTEM ...................................................... 96

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ICVolunteers

AgriGuide: Best Practices for Organic Farming, 29 July 2012

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Outline of the chapter ............................................................................................................................... 97

Strengthening knowledge in farmers’ communities ................................................................................. 97

PESTS AND PEST MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................................. 98

Pests which damage individual plants in a crop ...................................................................................... 98

Crop damage ............................................................................................................................................ 99

Shifting to non-chemical methods ............................................................................................................ 99

Recognizing the most important pests ................................................................................................... 100

Planning, implementing and experimenting ........................................................................................... 100

HERDING PRACTICES ................................................................................................................. 112

Access to water ...................................................................................................................................... 112

Access to food ........................................................................................................................................ 112

Animal health .......................................................................................................................................... 113

Nutrition and human health .................................................................................................................... 113

Meat consumption and health ................................................................................................................ 113

Useful studies ......................................................................................................................................... 114

FISHING PRACTICES ................................................................................................................... 115

Quality in regards to presence and health of fish ................................................................................... 115

Overfishing and stock management ....................................................................................................... 115

Fishing strategies ................................................................................................................................... 115

Nutrition / human health ......................................................................................................................... 116

Pollution absorption and mercury levels ................................................................................................ 116

Pregnant women and fish ....................................................................................................................... 116

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................ 117

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ICVolunteers

AgriGuide: Best Practices for Organic Farming, 29 July 2012

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INTRODUCTION

Organic agriculture (OA) is a holistic approach promoting and enhancing agro-ecosystem

health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. OA emphasizes

the adoption of best management practices in preference of off-farm inputs, taking into

account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This strategy is

accomplished by adopting best agronomic practices to fulfill any specific function within

the farming system.

Practices of organic farming vary worldwide. Some farmers follow the strict production

guidelines of a particular regulatory code while others develop their own independent

systems and practices. However, all organic farming systems share common goals and

practices:

 No use of synthetic fertilizers or pesticides, and genetically modified organisms

(GMOs);

 Protection of soils from erosion, nutrient depletion, and structural break down;

 Promotion of biodiversity, favoring the growth of different crops rather than mono-

culture;

 No drugs such as antibiotics and